XV. Ottoman Empire in the XVII- XIX centuries
1. Brief content of the lecture
1.Ottoman Empire by the XIX century
Ottoman Empire was created by force, by the XVII century it included vast territories in Europe (the Balkans, south- east Eurasia, Crimea), in Africa (North Africa, except Morocco), Asia (Asia Minor, Arabia, Syria, Palestine, Iraq, Part of Armenia and Georgia).
Political system. In the XVII- XVIII Ottoman Empire was feudal country headed by sultan, he was khalif (leader of the Muslims). Sultan was the owner of all land. Warriors (sipakhs) received land for service. This land could be rented by peasants.
Government consisted of vezir and people close to sultan. Muslim clergy played a great role in political and economic life: it possessed land with peasants, controlled judicial bodies, education and culture.
But by the XIX c. the Ottoman Empire lost its significance in the world historical process. The industrialized European countries preferred to keep the Ottoman Empire as a source of cheap raw materials and a market of their manufactured goods.
Since the 16-th century sultans had allowed Europeans to live and work in the Empire according to their own European laws and the Europeans were able to prevent Ottomans from restricting foreign imports and thus kept them from protecting national industries. The empire borrowed so heavily from European banks that more than half of its own total revenues were consumed by interest charges. National bourgeoisie was weak and was unable to lead the national-liberation movement. Semi-colonial position of the Ottoman empire preserved the feudal relations: about 65% of land was landowners’, state and Moslem clergy’s property.
Date: 2015-01-02; view: 903