Організація виробництва для досягнення успіху на закордонних ринках
The most important methods of production organization are the flow, batch, and unit methods. The most progressive is the flow method, which provides for the assignment of a limited list of jobs and for the arrangement of work positions and production sections according to the path dictated by the stages in a product’s manufacture. In the most highly refined forms of flow production the work of related sections is synchronized. Flow methods of production organization are used effectively in the mass production of uniform products; they are also effective in lot production. The unit method allows for modification according to the nature of the products produced, with individual production sections being set up to perform specialized tasks. The batch method is employed in lot production. It combines elements of unit and flow organization, resembling the latter most closely. It is characterized by the arrangement of equipment in groups of uniform machines and machine tools, assignment of a broad list of jobs to individual production units, limited use of specialized equipment and tools, and broad specialization among workers. The organization of experimental production has its own distinctive features. It is characterized by the absence of proven technology, by norms that are only tentative, by modification of products or parts of products, and by readjustments in production engineering.
The central problem of production organization with respect to time is planning the length of the production cycle, that is, the time from the moment that materials enter into production until the finished product emerges. The length of the production cycle is reduced by improving technology and employing highly productive machinery, by changing numerous natural processes into technological ones, by combining the time taken by transport and product-control operations with basic production time, and by using progressive methods for combining operations. Mathematical methods and modern computer equipment are used in working out measures for the organization of production.
Efficient organization of production is reflected in an increase in the productivity of social labor, improvement in the use of fixed productive funds, decreased losses of raw and processed materials, and lower production costs. An overall index of the efficiency of production organization is the increase in the value of output sold per ruble of capital invested by the state in the work of the particular production unit.
Under socialism production is organized in the interests of the working people and with their active participation.
Under capitalism the organization of production has the aim of extracting maximum profit for the owners of the means of production. Capitalist methods of organizing production are associated with excessive intensification of labor and inadequate safety standards and procedures. These negative qualities are all found, for example, in the manual-assembly conveyors used extensively in the capitalist countries. The exploitative essence of the capitalist organization of production is camouflaged by modern scientific methods. For example, the introduction of performance standards based on micromotion studies without corresponding changes in working conditions leads to an intensification of labor in the capitalist countries. Under capitalism the implements and objects of labor are improved only when improvement means increased profit. Nonetheless, many of these scientific methods of organizing production may, after critical scrutiny, be found suitable for use in socialist enterprises. Such methods include techniques for specializing work positions, for setting up supporting services, and for planning the division and cooperation of labor at work positions. These all methods of production organization are necessary for the firm that wants to function in foreign countries.