1) Facts and permanent states;
2) General truths and laws of nature;
3) Repeated / habitual actions (always, usually);
4) Timetables / programs (in the future)
5) Reviews / sports commentaries / dramatic narrative
6) Feelings & emotions.
1) past action which happened one immediately after the other;
2) completed actions or events which happened at a started past time;
3) past habits or states;
4) complete actions not connected to the present with a started or implied time reference.
1) decisions made at the moment of speaking;
2) predictions about the future, based on what we think, believe or imagine using the verbs think, believe, expect…; the expressions be sure, be afraid…; the adverbs probably, certainly, perhaps…
3) promises, threats, warnings, requests, hopes & offers;
4) actions, events, situations which will definitely happen in the future and which we can’t control.
1) Frank works for an insurance company.
2) The sun sets around 5 o’clock in the afternoon in the winter.
3) She usually goes to the supermarket on Thursdays.
4) His flight arrives at 6 o’clock tomorrow morning.
5) The basketball player shoots and the ball goes in the basket.
6) I love Venice, it’s a beautiful city.
1) She stood up, went up to her and grabbed her wrists.
2) I went to the cinema last night.
3) My grandfather always wore a hat. (My grandfather always used to wear a hat.)
4) Beethoven created wonderful classical pieces.
1) It’s hot in here, I’ll open a window.
2) He will probably call you later.
3) Will you help me clean up this mess?
4) Sue will be three years old in June.
everyday/week/month/year, usually, sometimes, always, rarely, never, often, onMonday, in themorning/evening…
tomorrow, the day after tomorrow, tonight, soon nextweek/month/year…, in aweek/month…
The Continuous Forms
The Present Continuous Tense
The Past Continuous Tense
The Future Continuous Tense
am / is / are + Ving
was / were + Ving
will be + Ving
We use for
1) Actions taking place at or around the moment of speaking;
2) Temporary situations;
3) Fixed arrangements in the near future;
4) Currently changing and developing situations;
5) With adverbs such as always to anger or irritation at a repeated action;
6) Expressing annoyance or criticism.
1) actions in the middle of happening at a stated past time;
2) a past action in progress interrupted by another past action. (The longer action in The Past Continuous, the shorter action in The Past Simple;
3) two or more simultaneous actions of certain duration;
4) background description to events in a strong description.
1) for action which will be in progress at a stated future time;
2) for actions which will definitely happen in the future as a result of a routine or arrangement;
3) when we ask politely about someone’s plans for the near future.
1) The kids are watching a video in the living room.
2) We are decorating the kitchen this week.
3) I’m going to a party tonight.
4) The sea is becoming more and more polluted.
5) She is always talking on the phone when I want to use it.
6) He is always leaving his dirty clothes on the floor!
1) She was flying to Paris this time last Monday.
2) I was watching TV when my mother came home.
3) I was reading while my brother was listening to music.
4) As he was walking through the woods, the birds were singing, and the sun was shining brightly.
1) I’ve got a new job, this time next month I’ll be working in the bank.
2) I’ll be visiting my grandparents at the weekend.
3) Will you be finishing with that book soon?
now, at the moment, at present, these days, nowadays, today, tonight…
while, when, as, the moment that…
The Perfect Forms
The Present Perfect Tense
The Present Perfect Continuous Tense
have / has + V3 (-ed)
have / has been + Ving
We use for
1) an action that happened at an unstated time in the past. The emphasis is on the action, the time that it occurred is unimportant or unknown;
2) an action which started in the past and continuous up to the present, especially with stative verbs (see above) such as be, have, like, know…
3) a recently completed action;
4) personal experiences or changes
1) to put emphasis on the duration of an action which started in the past and continues up to the present;
2) an action which started in the past and lasted for some time. It may be continuing or has finished already with the result visible in the present;
3) to express anger, irritation, or annoyance;
4) repeated actions in the past continuing to the present.
1) I have washed the car. Mary has been to Italy twice.
2) I have known her for six years.
3) I have finished my geography essay.
4) She has dyed her hair. Sally has gained some weight recently.
1) We have been cleaning the house all morning.
2) He’s tired because he has been working really hard recently.
3) She has been using my computer without asking me.
4) She has lost weight because she has been going to the gym every night after work.
for, since, already, always, just, ever, never, so far, today, thisweek/month…, how long, lately, recently, still (in negations)…
for, since, how long, allday/morning/month, lately, recently
The Past Perfect Tense
The Past Perfect Continuous Tense
had + V3 (-ed)
had been + Ving
We use for
1) a past action which occurred before another or before a stated past time;
2) complete past actions which had visible results in the past;
3) The Past Perfectis the past equivalent of The Present Perfect.
1) actions continuing over a period up to a specific time in the past;
2) past actions of certain duration which had visible results in the past4
3) The Past Perfect Continuous is the past equivalent of The Present Perfect Continuous.
1) She had typed all the letters by 10 o’clock.
2) She was crying because she had lost her job.
3) He is tired; he has painted the room. / He was tired; he had painted the room.
1) He had been working in Brussels for three years before he moved to London. (He was working in Brussels, then he moved to London and started working there.
2) Her feet were swollen because she had been walking all morning.
3) I’m tired; I’ve been gardening all afternoon. / I was tired; I had been gardening all afternoon.
for, since, already, after, just, never, yet, before, by, by the time…
The Future Perfect Tense
The Future Perfect Continuous Tense
will have + V3 (-ed)
will have been + Ving
We use for
1) actions that will have finished before a stated time in the future.
1) To emphasis the duration of an action up to a certain time in the future
1) We will have finished our course by the end of June.
1) By the end of the May Luke will have been living in Manchester for five years.
before, by, by then, by the time, until / till(only in negative sentences)