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Topic: Diseases of the alimentary tract, urinary tract, hematologic disorders, sexually transmitted diseases. HIV

* When people want to set up or start a company, they need money, called ...

* Companies can borrow this money, called a …, from banks.

* The loan must be paid back with ...: the amount paid to borrow the money.

* Capital can also come from issuing shares or ... - certificates representing units of ownership of a company.

* The people who invest money in shares are called shareholders and they own part of the company. The money they provide is known as ... .

* Individuals and financial institutions, called investors, can also lend money to companies by buying … - loans that pay interest and are repaid at a fixed future date.

* Money that is owed - that will have to be paid - to other people or businesses is a …

* In accounting, companies’ debts are usually called ….

* Long-term liabilities include bonds; short-term liabilities include … to suppliers who provide goods or services on credit - that will be paid for later.

* The money that a business uses for everyday expenses or has available for spending is called working capital or funds.

* All the money coming into a company during a given period is ….

* Revenue minus the cost of sales and operating expenses, such as rent and salaries, is known as profit, earnings or net income.

* The part of its profit that a company pays to its shareholders is a ….

* Companies pay a proportion of their profits to the government as …, to finance government spending. They also retain, or keep, some of their earnings for future use.

* Companies give information about their financial situation in financial ….

* The balance sheet shows the company’s … - the things it owns; its liabilities - the money it owes; and its capital.

* The profit and loss account shows the company’s revenues and … during a particular period, such as three months or a year.

* For most of the 20th century, most banks operated in one country only (in the US, in one state only).

* Different kinds of … did specialized kinds of financial business.

* Retail banks or commercial banks worked with individuals and small companies: received deposits and ….

* Investment banks worked with big companies: gave financial advice, raised capital - increased the amount of money companies had by issuing … or shares and bonds and organized mergers and takeover bids.

*Insurance companies provided life insurance and …..

* Building societies specialized in …. Many have now become normal commercial banks.

* Debts that pay interest and are repaid at a fixed future date are

* The financial industry changed radically in 1980s and 90s when it was ….

* Before deregulation: rules and regulations in the US, Britain and Japan prevented commercial banks doing … banking business.

* Some other countries (Germany, Switzerland) already had universal banks doing all kinds of financial ….

* Today: many large international conglomerates offer a complete…of financial services.

* Individuals and … can use a single financial institution for all their financial needs.



* Central banks issue currency and carry out the government's financial ….

* Private banks manage the … of rich people or high net worth individuals.

* Clearing banks pass … and other payments through the banking system.

* Non-bank financial intermediaries such as car manufacturers, food retailers and department stores now offer products like …, credit cards and insurance.

* Unlike commercial banks, investment banks like ours don’t lend ….

* Instead we act as intermediaries between companies and investors.

* We help companies and governments raise capital by issuing securities such as stocks and bonds - that is, we offer them for sale.

* We often underwrite securities issues: in other words, we guarantee to buy the securities ourselves if we can’t find other purchasers.

* As well as initial public offerings (IPOs), when companies offer stock for sale for the first time, there are other occasions when they … funds.

* For example, they might want to expand their operations, or to acquire another company, or to reduce their amount of debt, or to finance a specific project.

* They don’t only raise capital from the public: they can sell stocks or shares to institutional investors like … companies, investment funds - companies that invest the money of lots of small investors, and pension funds - companies that invest money that will later be paid to retired workers.

* We also have a stockbroking and … department.

* Stockbroking and dealing department executes orders - buys and sells stocks for clients - which is broking, and trades with our own money, which is ….

* The stockbroking department also … advice to investors.

* Investment banks often …. firms in mergers and acquisitions, and divestitures.

* A divestiture is when a company … a subsidiary - another company that it owns.

* Large corporations have their own … and corporate development departments.

* But they often use an investment bank like ours because, like a consulting firm, we can offer independent advice, and we have a lot of … in financial transactions.

* We also have a large network of …, and relationships with investors and companies that could be interested in a merger or acquisition.

* If we’ve worked on a … with a company, we know a lot about its business. This means we can give advice about strategic planning - deciding what do to in the future - or financial restructuring - changing the way the business is financed.

* Large investment banks also have extensive research departments with analysts and forecasters who specialize in the valuation of different …, industries, companies, securities and currencies.

* Analysts try to work out how much things are worth now, and … study the prospects for the future.

* a company of experts providing professional advice to businesses for a fee

* a financial institution that invests money to provide retirement income for employees

* deciding what a company is going to do in the future

* people who try to predict what will happen in the future

* a company that is partly or wholly owned by another one

* a financial institution that purchases securities

* making changes to how a company is financed

* establishing how much something is worth

* Financial planning involves … whether new projects would be profitable.

* We have to calculate the probable rate of return: the amount of income we’d receive each year from the investment, expressed as a … of the total amount invested.

* If we’re going to finance a project with our own money, the rate of return must be at least as high as we could get by depositing the money in a bank instead, or by making another risk-free investment, like buying government bonds.

* If we need to borrow money to finance a new investment, its projected rate of return has to be higher than the cost of capital - the … we have to pay to borrow the money.

* We usually calculate the discounted cash flow value of an investment. This means …. or reducing future cash flows to get their present values - in other words, calculating the present value of money to be received in the future.

* This is because the value of … decreases over time.

* Firstly, there’s nearly always inflation, so … will have lower purchasing power in the future: you’ll be able to buy less with the same amount of money.

* And secondly, if you had the money now, you could get … by using or investing it.

* The return we could get by investing the money in other ways is the opportunity cost of capital. So waiting for money is also a ….

* This is the time … of money: how much more it is worth to receive money now rather than in the future.

* If we have to choose among possible investments in new projects, we work out the … (NPV) of each project by adding up all the expected cash flows, discounted to their present value, minus the initial investment.

* To do this, we have to select a discount … or capitalization rate. This is usually the interest rate we pay for borrowing the capital, but we could increase it if there’s a lot of uncertainty or risk.

* Discounting sounds complicated, but it isn’t. It’s the … of compounding interest.

* For example, if you invest $1,000 at 10% for five years, it will yield 1.61 times its original value. So you get back $1,610, including $610 compound …..

* When we’re comparing alternative investments, we also calculate the … (IRR).

* That’s the interest rate or discount rate that gives a net present value of zero in today’s money values.

* The present value of the cash that we’re going to receive from an investment is the same as the present value of …. that cash. We normally choose the investment with the highest IRR.

* Mei Lee is the compliance officer at a large US bank with subsidiaries in major financial centres: she has to make sure that everybody obeys government …. and follows internal procedures.

* The financial … industry was deregulated in the 1980s: lots of government controls were removed to make the market freer and more efficient. But a lot of regulations still exist.

* We’re still regulated and supervised by government …. For example, in Britain there’s the Financial Services Authority (FSA), and here in the States there’s the Federal Reserve (or the Fed) and the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC).

* The Fed supervises banks, and the SEC tries to protect investors by requiring full disclosure: it makes sure that public … make all significant financial information available.

* When people want to set up or start a company, they need money, called ...

(choose the wrong answers, 3 choices)

* Companies can borrow this money, called a …, from banks.

(choose the wrong answers, 3 choices)

* The loan must be paid back with ...: the amount paid to borrow the money.

(choose the wrong answers, 3 choices)

* Capital can also come from issuing shares or ... - certificates representing units of ownership of a company. (choose the wrong answers, 3 choices)

* The people who invest money in shares are called shareholders and they own part of the company. The money they provide is known as ... . (choose the wrong answers, 3 choices)

* Individuals and financial institutions, called investors, can also lend money to companies by buying … - loans that pay interest and are repaid at a fixed future date.

(choose the wrong answers, 3 choices)

* Money that is owed - that will have to be paid - to other people or businesses is a …

(choose the wrong answers, 3 choices)

* In accounting, companies’ debts are usually called ….(choose the wrong answers, 3 choices)

* Long-term liabilities include bonds; short-term liabilities include … to suppliers who provide goods or services on credit - that will be paid for later.

(choose the wrong answers, 3 choices)

* The money that a business uses for everyday expenses or has available for spending is called working capital or funds.

(choose the wrong answers, 3 choices)

* All the money coming into a company during a given period is ….

(choose the wrong answers, 3 choices)

* Revenue minus the cost of sales and operating expenses, such as rent and salaries, is known as profit, earnings or net income.

(choose the wrong answers, 3 choices)

* The part of its profit that a company pays to its shareholders is a ….

(choose the wrong answers, 3 choices)

* Companies pay a proportion of their profits to the government as …, to finance government spending. They also retain, or keep, some of their earnings for future use. (choose the wrong answers, 3 choices)

* Companies give information about their financial situation in financial ….

(choose the wrong answers, 3 choices)

* The balance sheet shows the company’s … - the things it owns; its liabilities - the money it owes; and its capital. (choose the wrong answers, 3 choices)

* The profit and loss account shows the company’s revenues and … during a particular period, such as three months or a year. (choose the wrong answers, 3 choices)

* For most of the 20th century, most banks operated in one country only (in the US, in one state only). (choose the wrong answers, 3 choices)

* Different kinds of … did specialized kinds of financial business. (choose the wrong answers, 3 choices)

* Retail banks or commercial banks worked with individuals and small companies: received deposits and ….

(choose the wrong answers, 3 choices)

* Investment banks worked with big companies: gave financial advice, raised capital - increased the amount of money companies had by issuing … or shares and bonds and organized mergers and takeover bids. (choose the wrong answers, 3 choices)

*Insurance companies provided life insurance and …..

(choose the wrong answers, 3 choices)

* Building societies specialized in …. Many have now become normal commercial banks.

(choose the wrong answers, 3 choices)

* Debts that pay interest and are repaid at a fixed future date are

(choose the wrong answers, 3 choices)

* The financial industry changed radically in 1980s and 90s when it was ….

(choose the wrong answers, 3 choices)

* Before deregulation: rules and regulations in the US, Britain and Japan prevented commercial banks doing … banking business.

(choose the wrong answers, 3 choices)

* Some other countries (Germany, Switzerland) already had universal banks doing all kinds of financial ….(choose the wrong answers, 3 choices)

* Today: many large international conglomerates offer a complete…of financial services.

(choose the wrong answers, 3 choices)

* Individuals and … can use a single financial institution for all their financial needs.



(choose the wrong answers, 3 choices)

* Central banks issue currency and carry out the government's financial ….

(choose the wrong answers, 3 choices)

* Private banks manage the … of rich people or high net worth individuals.

(choose the wrong answers, 3 choices)

* Clearing banks pass … and other payments through the banking system.

(choose the wrong answers, 3 choices)

* Non-bank financial intermediaries such as car manufacturers, food retailers and department stores now offer products like …, credit cards and insurance.

(choose the wrong answers, 3 choices)

* Unlike commercial banks, investment banks like ours don’t lend ….

(choose the wrong answers, 3 choices)

* Instead we act as intermediaries between companies and investors. (choose the wrong answers, 3 choices)

* We help companies and governments raise capital by issuing securities such as stocks and bonds - that is, we offer them for sale. (choose the wrong answers, 3 choices)

* We often underwrite securities issues: in other words, we guarantee to buy the securities ourselves if we can’t find other purchasers. (choose the wrong answers, 3 choices)

* As well as initial public offerings (IPOs), when companies offer stock for sale for the first time, there are other occasions when they … funds. (choose the wrong answers, 3 choices)

* For example, they might want to expand their operations, or to acquire another company, or to reduce their amount of debt, or to finance a specific project. (choose the wrong answers, 3 choices)

* They don’t only raise capital from the public: they can sell stocks or shares to institutional investors like … companies, investment funds - companies that invest the money of lots of small investors, and pension funds - companies that invest money that will later be paid to retired workers. (choose the wrong answers, 3 choices)

* We also have a stockbroking and … department.

(choose the wrong answers, 3 choices)

* Stockbroking and dealing department executes orders - buys and sells stocks for clients - which is broking, and trades with our own money, which is ….

(choose the wrong answers, 3 choices)

* The stockbroking department also … advice to investors. (choose the wrong answers, 3 choices)

* Investment banks often …. firms in mergers and acquisitions, and divestitures. (choose the wrong answers, 3 choices)

* A divestiture is when a company … a subsidiary - another company that it owns. (choose the wrong answers, 3 choices)

* Large corporations have their own … and corporate development departments.

(choose the wrong answers, 3 choices)

* But they often use an investment bank like ours because, like a consulting firm, we can offer independent advice, and we have a lot of … in financial transactions. (choose the wrong answers, 3 choices)

* We also have a large network of …, and relationships with investors and companies that could be interested in a merger or acquisition. (choose the wrong answers, 3 choices)

* If we’ve worked on a … with a company, we know a lot about its business. This means we can give advice about strategic planning - deciding what do to in the future - or financial restructuring - changing the way the business is financed.

(choose the wrong answers, 3 choices)

* Large investment banks also have extensive research departments with analysts and forecasters who specialize in the valuation of different …, industries, companies, securities and currencies.

(choose the wrong answers, 3 choices)

* Analysts try to work out how much things are worth now, and … study the prospects for the future. (choose the wrong answers, 3 choices)

* a company of experts providing professional advice to businesses for a fee

(choose the wrong answers, 3 choices)

* a financial institution that invests money to provide retirement income for employees

(choose the wrong answers, 3 choices)

* deciding what a company is going to do in the future (choose the wrong answers, 3 choices)

* people who try to predict what will happen in the future

(choose the wrong answers, 3 choices)

* a company that is partly or wholly owned by another one

(choose the wrong answers, 3 choices)

* a financial institution that purchases securities

(choose the wrong answers, 3 choices)

* making changes to how a company is financed

(choose the wrong answers, 3 choices)

* establishing how much something is worth

(choose the wrong answers, 3 choices)

* Financial … involves … whether new projects would be profitable. (2 choices)

* We have to calculate the probable …. of return: the amount of income we’d receive each year from the investment, expressed as a … of the total amount invested.(2 choices)

* If we’re going to finance a project with our own …, the rate of return must be at least as high as we could get by depositing the money in a bank instead, or by making another risk-free investment, like buying government bonds.(2 chioces)

* If we need to borrow … to finance a new investment, its projected rate of return has to be higher than the cost of capital - the … we have to pay to borrow the money.(2 choices)

* We usually calculate the discounted … flow value of an investment. This means …. or reducing future cash flows to get their present values - in other words, calculating the present value of money to be received in the future. (2 choices)

* This is because the … of … decreases over time. (2 choices)

* Firstly, there’s nearly always inflation, so … will have lower purchasing power in the future: you’ll be able to buy less with the same amount of …. (2 choices)

* And secondly, if you had the … now, you could get … by using or investing it.( 2 choices)

* The return we could get by investing the … in other ways is the opportunity cost of capital. So waiting for money is also a …. (2 choices)

* This is the time … of money: how much more it is worth to receive … now rather than in the future. (2 choices)

* If we have to choose among possible … in new projects, we work out the … (NPV) of each project by adding up all the expected cash flows, discounted to their present value, minus the initial investment. (2 choices)

* To do this, we have to select a discount … or capitalization rate. This is usually the interest rate we pay for borrowing the …, but we could increase it if there’s a lot of uncertainty or risk.

(2 choices)

* Discounting sounds complicated, but it isn’t. It’s the … of compounding …. (2 choices)

* For example, if you … $1,000 at 10% for five years, it will yield 1.61 times its original value. So you get back $1,610, including $610 compound ….. (2 choices)

* When we’re comparing alternative …, we also calculate the … (IRR).

(2 choices)

* That’s the … or discount rate that gives a net present value of zero in today’s … values. (2 choices)

* The present … of the cash that we’re going to receive from an investment is the same as the present value of …. that cash. We normally choose the investment with the highest IRR. (2 choices)

* Mei Lee is the compliance officer at a large US bank with subsidiaries in major financial centres: she has to make sure that everybody obeys government …. and follows internal ….(2 choices)

* The financial … industry was deregulated in the 1980s: lots of government controls were removed to make the … freer and more efficient. But a lot of regulations still exist.

(2 choices)

* We’re still regulated and supervised by government …. For example, in Britain there’s the … (FSA), and here in the States there’s the Federal Reserve (or the Fed) and the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC).(2 choices)

* The Fed supervises banks, and the SEC tries to protect investors by requiring full disclosure: it makes sure that public … make all significant financial … available. (2 choices)

 

 

Topic: Diseases of the alimentary tract, urinary tract, hematologic disorders, sexually transmitted diseases. HIV

(2 hours)

 

I. Actuality of the theme: During pregnancy, many pathological changes occur in a pregnant woman, which have the influence on pregnancy and delivery, including cardiovascular, hematologic, metabolic, renal and respiratory changes that become very important in the event of complications. Prenatal care is important in screening for various complications of pregnancy and to educate the patient. Important issues of prenatal care include initial patient evaluation, routine patient evaluation, nutrition, disease states during the pregnancy, and preparing for the delivery.

 

II. Educational aims of the lesson:

A. Students must know (a-II):

1. Infectious diseases in pregnancy.

2. Effect of Syphilis on Pregnancy. Diagnosis. Evidence of syphilis in products of conception. Treatment.

3. Pulmonary tuberculosis with pregnancy. Effect of T.B. on pregnancy. Antenatal care, labor.

4. Viral infections during pregnancy. HIV.

5. Rubella. Clinical manifestations. Diagnosis. Complications.

6. Toxoplasmosis. Method of transmission. Clinical features. Complications.

7. Diseases of the alimentary tract.

8. Urinary tract infection in pregnancy.

9. Asymptomatic bacteriuria.

10. Pyelonephritis. Predisposing factors during pregnancy. Causative organisms. Diagnosis. Investigations.

11. Iron deficiency anemia. Megaloblastic anaemia. Hemolytic anemias.

12. Groups of increased risk of pregnant.

 

B. Students should be able (a-III):

· to take general and epidemiological history;

· to estimate complaints of women which are brought up due to pregnancy and medical illnesses during pregnancy;

· to provide general examination of pregnant women;

· to diagnose the discomfort states which are arise up during pregnancy;

· to differentiate physiological and pathological changes|changing| in the organism of mother during pregnancy|;

· to put a diagnosis and make a plan of additional examination;

· to estimate the results of basic and additional methods of research for diagnosis pathological states;

· to make a plan of antenatal care and plan of labor.

|luinIII. Interdisciplinary integration:

¹ Disciplines To know To be able to
1. Previous disciplines:
1. Human anatomy   Anatomy of organs and systems of organism.  
2. Normal physiology Physiology of organs and systems.  
3. Internal medicine   Propedeutics of diseases of internal organs. Physiology parameters of the state of female organs and systems. Conduct system-based clinical examination  
2. Intradisciplinary integration:
1. Pregnancy and extragenital pathology   Physiological changes during pregnancy. Signs of somatic pathology during pregnancy. Complications of pregnancy which arise up as a background extragenital pathology. Diagnose somatic pathology during pregnancy.  

 

IV. Control materials of lesson.

4.1. Control questions:

1. What do physiological changes occur during pregnancy?

2. Infectious diseases in pregnancy.

3. Effect of Syphilis on Pregnancy. Diagnosis. Evidence of syphilis in products of conception. Treatment.

4. Pulmonary tuberculosis with pregnancy. Effect of T.B. on pregnancy. Antenatal care, labor.

5. Viral infections during pregnancy. HIV.

6. Rubella. Clinical manifestations. Diagnosis. Complications.

7. Toxoplasmosis. Method of transmission. Clinical features. Complications.

8. Diseases of the alimentary tract.

9. Urinary tract infection in pregnancy.

10. Asymptomatic bacteriuria.

11. Pyelonephritis. Predisposing factors during pregnancy. Causative organisms. Diagnosis. Investigations.

12. Iron deficiency anemia. Megaloblastic anaemia. Hemolytic anemias.

13. Groups of increased risk of pregnant.

14. What are the basic|main| principles and tasks|task| of prenatal care?

4.2. Practical skills:

· to take general history, define basic problems and complaints women experience during pregnancy;

· to conduct physical examination of a pregnant woman;

· to diagnose the discomfort states which show up during pregnancy;

· to differentiate physiological changes in the organism of mother during pregnancy with pathological on the basis of evaluation of the given laboratory results and other methods of investigation.

· to make a plan of antenatal care and plan of labor.

4.3. Clinical tasks and tests:

1. The basis of diagnostic of iron deficiency anemia:

À. Special complaints of pregnant woman.

Â. Laboratory results.

Ñ. Appearance of heart diseases.

D. Presence of trophic disorders.

Å. Disturbance of intrauterine fetal development.

 

2. Direct diagnostic methods of intrauterine infections are the following except:

À. Chorion villous samples.

Â. Investigation of amniotic fluid.

Ñ. Investigation of fetal blood.

D. Investigation of pharyngeal aspirate in moment of fetal birth.

Å. Identification of microorganisms in cervical and vaginal discharges of pregnant woman.

 

3. Method of delivery by pyelonephritis is:

À. Plan cesarean section.

Â. Cesarean section in labor.

Ñ. Vaginal delivery without shorten of the II period.

D. Vaginal delivery with shorten of the II period of labor by perineotomy..

Å. Forceps delivery.

 

4. A 30 years old woman delivered at 32 weeks of pregnancy a death baby with numerous defects of brain, eyes, heart. In anamnesis: 2 spontaneous abortions, premature labor by death baby. During the last pregnancy: prolong subfebrile condition, sings of chronic hepatitis. What is necessary for diagnose?

À. Inoculation from cervix.

Â. Complement fixation Toxoplasma reaction.

Ñ. Urine inoculation for determination of sterility.

D. Wasserman reaction.

Å. Mantoux reaction.

4.4. Table.

  Virus Complications
Abortion Stillbirth Low birth weight Main congenital anomalies
Rubella + + + Cataract, deafness, cardiac, hepatosplenomegaly, psychomotor retardation.
Cytomegalovirus ? + + Microcephaly, deafness, hepatosplenomegaly, psychomotor retardation.
Herpes hominis - - + Microcephaly, psychomotor retardation, chorioretinitis.
Varicella zoster ? ? + Hypoplasia of limb, rudimentary digits.
Mumps + + - Endocardial fibro-elastosis.
Influenza + + - Following 1st trimester illness.
Smallpox + + ? Foetal smallpox.
Hepatitis B - - - Hepatosplenomegaly, chronic cirrhosis.
Measles + + - Nil Proven.
Polio virus + + + Paralysis.

 

V. Literature:

1. Khmil S.V., Kuchma Z.M., Romanchuk L.I. Gynecology: T., Ukrmedknyga, 2003.

2. Obstetrics and gynecology. Williams & Wilkins Waverly Company. – Third Edition – 1998.

3. Tamara L.Callahan, Aaron B.Caughey. Blueprints Obstetrics and gynecology. – Lippincott Williams & Wilkins – Fourth edition – 2007.

 

Head of department of Obstetrics and Gynecology

doctor of medical sciences, professor Genik N.I.

 


Date: 2014-12-21; view: 411


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