What are the differences in the working environments of a translator and interpreter?
Translator is dependent on supporting environment; interpreter is entirely self-dependent
♦ Translator has all time necessary to do and check the translation.
♦ Interpreter is limited in time and cannot check and redo the interpretation.
♦ Translator has free access to dictionaries and reference material.
♦ Interpreter has no access to any outside information.
♦ Translator has no immediate contact with translation users and often is unaware of their reaction.
♦ Interpreter is in immediate and close contact with the audience reacting to interpretation mistakes
What are the differences in the working environments of a consecutive and simultaneous interpreter?
1. In simultaneous interpretation the interpreter is much more limited in time.
2. In simultaneous interpretation the length of the text translated as one 'batch' is much shorter than in consecutive.44
Unlike consecutive interpretation where the interpreter may correct mistakes and slips of the tongue, simultaneous interpreter has no time for corrections and redoing
What are the basic interpretation approaches used by consecutive and simultaneous interpreters? Explain why they keep to a particular approach?
the consecutive interpreter adheres to predominantly denotative approach in interpretation whereas the basic approach of simultaneous interpretation is transformational.
•* Long stretches of speech to be translated do not allow the consecutive interpreter to keep close to the source text, whereas the simultaneous interpreter is forced by time limitation to translate by small fragments of the source text transforming them according to the target language grammar
3. What is text compression? How is it used in interpretation?
Text compression is a basic translation device aimed at saving interpretation time and removing source text redundancy is one of the main instruments of simultaneous interpretation which allows the interpreter to keep in pace with the source text not sacrificing the content.
In consecutive interpretation text compression is used as well - it allows to get rid of the source text redundancy, but the main instrument of consecutive interpretation is text development.
5. What is text development? How is it used in interpretation?
that text development is more usable in consecutive than in simultaneous interpretation, though simultaneous interpreters also use it.
Text development in the course of interpretation is the restoration of the full composition of a source sentence starting from its syntactic and semantic core accompanied by restructuring of the source sentence in compliance with syntactic and semantic standards of the target language.
Text development is performed either with note-taking or without it. It usually starts from the Subject-Predicate pair and then other sentence elements are organized around this core.
Text development is the optimal method of interpretation because it allows to organize the translation in accordance with the target language style and grammar standards rather than copy the source sentence structure