What varieties are distinguished in translation?
translation is divided into written translation (or simply translation) and oral (or interpretation).
Interpretation, in its turn, is traditionally divided into consecutive interpretation and simultaneous interpretation
Written translation is also divided into several sub-categories depending on the genre of the text being translated, such as literary translation (fiction, poetry and publicistic texts), translation of official documents, etc.
2. Are translation approaches and devices similar in different translation varieties?
all translation varieties use similar approaches and translation devices. Both in written translation and during the interpretation the translator (interpreter) may use either transformational or denotative approach.40
3. What are the principle differences between consecutive and simultaneous interpretation?
In consecutive interpretation the interpretation follows the source utterance, whereas simultaneous interpretation is performed simultaneously with the original speech.
This time lag of the interpreter relative to the speaker is the main distinction of consecutive interpretation, which determines the peculiarities of the approach and translation devices used by the interpreter
4. What are chuchotage and at-sight interpretation?
Chuchotage and at-sight interpretation are commonly regarded as alternatives of consecutive interpretation despite minor differences in physical procedures.
Chuchotage and at-sight interpretation are two specific alternatives of consecutive interpretation proper. During chuchotage the interpreter speaks in low voice, almost whispers so that only the interpretation user can hear. This interpretation alternative is rather hard for the interpreter who has to control the pitch of his or her voice. As concerns the approach it is similar to that used in standard consecutive interpretation.
At-sight interpretation is another variety of consecutive interpretation. The difference is that the interpreter reads a written text in a source language rather than listening to the speaker as in ordinary consecutive interpretation. However, there is a peculiarity of this interpretation variety which, unfortunately, is often overlooked.
5. Describe differences in working environments of a translator and interpreter?
A translator has at hand dictionaries and reference materials and, as a rule, observes no specific time limits for the work; translation may be self-edited and redone if so required.
An interpreter is entirely self-dependent and cannot rely on any outside help: mistakes, slips of tongue are immediately noticeable and derate the translation. In other words, the interpretation and translation tasks are equally hard, but different as different are the required skills and training methods discussed below in the lectures that follow.
Date: 2014-12-29; view: 625