What kind of information shall a flight plan contain?
Flight plan is a special document. A pilot can’t fly without it. A lot of important and necessary information is in it. Flight plan contains aircraft callsign, type of aircraft route of flight, number of passengers, assigned flight level, point of destination, alternatives, endurance, the significant reporting points and zones along the route, FL changes, the duration of flight, aircraft equipment, purpose of flight and some other information.
7.- Application procedures of ground movement Radar Control (if such equipment is available).
Surface movement Radar systems shall enable the detection and display of the movement of all aircraft and vehicles on the maneuvering area in a clear manner.
The use of SMR should be related to the operational conditions and requirements of the particular aerodrome (i.e. visibility conditions, traffic density and aerodrome layout). SMR should be used to augment visual observation of traffic on the MA and to provide surveillance of traffic on those parts of the MA which cannot be observed visually.
The information displayed on an SMR display may be used to assist in:
-monitoring of an aircraft and vehicles on the MA for compliance with clearances and instructions;
-determining that a RW is clear of traffic prior to landing or take off;
-providing information on essential local traffic on or near the MA;
-determining the location of aircraft and vehicles on the MA ;
-providing directional taxi information to aircraft when requested by the pilot or considered necessary by the controller;
-providing assistance and advice to emergency vehicle.
- What kind of airspace restrictions do you know?
There are some kinds of airspace restrictions. They are:
Dangerous zones. It is a part of air space within which the activity of the aircraft is provided at specific periods of time which can be dangerous for aircraft navigation. The time of dangerous zones activity is fixed in the aeronautical information publications and in the appropriate NOTA Ms.They are located in the territory of Ukraine over sea shooting ranges (полигоны) and in the areas of air space where it is dangerous to fly.
Prohibited zones. It is a part of air space within which anaircraft navigation is prohibited except some cases foreseen by Regulations of Ukrainian Air Space usage. Prohibited zones over the territory of Ukraine are located over the atomic power stations, hydroelectric power stations, dams, some special industrial objects, nature reserves (заповедники) and some other objects.
Restricted zones. It is a part of air space over land territory or territorial waters within which the aircraft navigation is restricted. Restricted areas over the territory of Ukraine are located over aviation shooting ranges and testing sites (полигоны для испытания оружия). The flights in these zones depend on types of restrictions or special conditions, published in AIP of Ukraine.
8.- Application procedures of Radar information by Tower controller (relating to local conditions)
Radar information may be used in the provision of aerodrome control service to perform the following functions:
- Radar monitoring of aircraft on final approach;
- Radar monitoring of other aircraft in the vicinity of an aerodrome;
- Establishing radar separation between departing and arriving aircraft;
- Providing navigation assistance to VFR flights.
- Runway incursion. What is it?
Runway incursionis an incident where an aircraft enters a runway without an air traffic control clearance. It may involve the incorrect presence of a vehicle or a person on the protected area of a surface designated for aircraft landing and take-off.
This may include:
- two aircraft coming head-to head
- an aircraft colliding with another one
- an aircraft colliding with a ground vehicle
- an aircraft entering an active RW
This may cause:
- an aircraft damage to the aircraft, either minor or severe