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REFERENCING WITHIN THE TEXT

JOURNAL ARTICLES AND BOOKS

 

¡ One author. Give the surname of the author and the year of publication.

Author’s surname occurs in the sentence.

Murphy (2009) agrees with this...

Author’s surname does not occur in the sentence.

(Murphy, 2009).

 

¡ Two authors.Give both surnames and the year of publication.

Authors’ surnames occur in the sentence.

 

Smith and Jones (2010) confirmed this...

 

Authors’ surnames do not occur in the sentence.

 

(Smith and Jones, 2010).

 

¡ More than two authors.Give the surname of the first authorfollowed by et al.”

Authors’ surnames occur in the sentence.

 

Dibb et al. (2010) found that the power generated by...

 

Authors’ surnames do not occur in the sentence.

 

(Dibb et al., 2010).

 

¡ If the same point is made by several authors, authors should be in chronological order linked by a semi-colon e.g.

The positive side to customer complaints has been noted in several studies, but these also warn that if any continuing dissatisfaction is not dealt with effectively, the customer is likely to switch to alternative suppliers for further purchases (Lewis and Morris, 1987; Spreng and Mackoy, 1995; Lyons, 1996; and Tax and Brown, 1998).

¡ Different works by the same author and published in the same year are listed by lower case letters after the year (2010a, 2010b, 2010c) e.g.

(Smith, 2010a).

¡ If the work is anonymous then Anon should be used e.g.

In a recent article (Anon. 2005) it was stated that…

 

 

QUOTATIONS

 

¡ If the quote is 30 words or less use quotation marks within the text and give the author’s surname, date of publication, and page number in parentheses.

 

Example:

 

“The popularity of baked beans soared when Elvis Presley was seen to eat six whole tins on Entertainment Tonight in 1959” (Heinz, 1998, 34).

¡ If the quote is more than 30 wordsthen indent on the page, single-spaced. (Do not use quotation marks). Give author’s surname, date of publication, and page number in parentheses.

 

Example:

 

Service mapping has been described as a process which

visually defines a service system, displaying each sub-process within the sequence. The map should revolve around the explicit actions the customer takes to receive the service (Berry, 1995, 86).

 

¡ If there is a break in the quoted sentence, use 3 dots in between (…)

Example:

“…a service system displaying each sub-process within the sequence” (Berry, 1995, 86).

¡ If the author’s name occurs naturally in the sentence, the year is given in parentheses.

 

Example:

In a popular study Harvey (1992) argued that we have to teach good practices…

Or

As Harvey (1992, 21) said, “good practices must be taught” and so we…

 

¡ If the name does not occur naturally in the sentence, both name and year are given in parentheses.



 

Example:

A more recent study (Stevens, 1998) has shown the way theory and practical work

interact.

 

 

NEWSPAPER ARTICLES

¡ Reference to a newspaper article with no author: - Replace Anon with the name of the paper.

 

Example:

 

More people than ever seem to be shopping at Tesco’s (The Times, 2007).

 

SECONDHAND REFERENCING

¡ If required use “cited in”, the name of the author, and the date of publication of the text quoted from.

Example:

However, the impact of these changes on job performance is not known (Yates, 1985 cited in Robbins and Coulter, 1999).

¡ Only list the work that has been read in the reference list e.g. Robbins and Coulter, 1999.

 

WEB SITES

(BBC, 2009)or BBC (2009)

PERSON TO PERSON COMMUNICATIONS E.G. LETTERS, EMAILS, INTERVIEWS ETC.

 

Cite personal communications in the text only.Give initials as well as the surname of the communicator and provide as exact a date as possible. When citing research data which you have collected, it is advisable to also include copies or summaries of source data in appendices.

Example:

Many supermarkets do not understand the needs of the elderly customer according to M. Byrne (personal communication, 17/03/10).

 

 


Date: 2015-12-11; view: 337


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