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The economic essence of the deposit and its types


Commercial banks, like other subjects of economic relations, should have a certain amount of resources, particularly in the form of money, to ensure their business. In the present conditions of economic development problem of the formation of resources is of paramount importance. This is because the transition to a market economy model, the elimination of state monopoly on banking, construction of a two-tier banking system of the nature of banking resources is undergoing significant changes. This is because, first, that significantly narrowed a nationwide fund of bank resources, and the scope of its operations is concentrated in the first tier of the banking system - the National Bank of the Republic of Kazakhstan. Secondly, the formation of companies and organizations with various forms of ownership means the appearance of new owners of temporarily idle funds, self-determining the location and method of storage.
In addition, the scale of banks depends on their own resources they have, and especially the amount of borrowed resources. This situation intensifies the competition between banks to attract resources.
Resources of commercial banks, or "banking resources" are a set of own and borrowed funds at his disposal and used for active operations.
The main source of bank resources are customer deposits (funds raised), which cover up to 90% of the total cash requirements for the implementation of active banking operations.
Commercial Bank has an opportunity to raise funds of enterprises, organizations, institutions, communities and other banks in the form of deposits (deposits) and the opening of their respective accounts.
Consideration of the concept of "deposit" should begin with the savings, the occurrence of which is, in fact, the impetus for the emergence and formation of deposits. The essence of the savings as an economic category is implemented through the distribution function, so that there is a concentration of funds in the banking system and their use in order to meet national needs.
According to D. Polfreman and F. Ford, "The savings - is" to refrain from spending. "The concept of savings applies to individuals or their families and is focused primarily on how they dispose of their income" /3/ P.135 /.
Thus, the savings - is the result of the accumulation of wealth owners, in particular, in the form of cash, but its scope extends to the actions of households. In the most general terms, the savings - a cash reserve created by the people to achieve certain goals of consumer, but it should be noted that it can generate income - for example, by placing money on deposit in the bank.
In the economic literature there is a large number of definitions of "deposit", but there is no universally accepted definition of a, which could serve as a starting point for analysis.
Consider the comparative theoretical approaches to the definition of "deposit".

Ricardo defines a deposit as follows: "Cost sharing is an essential capital of the bank.The bank would never have been established, if he only made a profit from the use of equity. The real benefit of the bank is obtained only when he uses someone else's capital. "
Pigou gives the following definition: "Deposit - this is the real value of the population."
James Keynes: "Deposit - is the proportion of income that people preferred to keep the cash."
In the book "Banking Portfolio" authors, referring to historical information, explain that the original form of deposit operations was deposited on the monetary yards, and so I gold coins for their better preservation. For possession of gold coins was the owner must pay a fee to the keeper, the latter being guaranteed by the client is a return of the coins, which were handed to him for safekeeping. Of course, in such circumstances, money changers could not carry out lending operations with those obtained by coins; they could not make profits out of which they would pay the owners of money interest. Historically, the owners of money ceased to demand the return of the same coin, returning only the amount of money placed, however the periods of storage hasl engthened. Only then you can use these borrowed funds to provide loans to get a loan to pay interest and part of the sum of their owner’s money. If, before this money-changers in the provision of loans were based only on equity, but now they can also use the borrowed funds, considering the conditions for placing funds on deposit depositors /4/ P. 649 /.
The interpretation of the term "deposit" in the economic literature is ambiguous. In the foreign literature refers to all deposits under the term and demand deposits except savings bank customers.
In the domestic banking literature to include only the deposits of term deposits of enterprises and individuals, not including funds for the settlement, current, budget and other accounts for special purposes.

Section I "of the Law on Banks and Banking Activity in the Republic of Kazakhstan" gives the following definition of "deposit": is the money transferred from one person (depositor) to another person - to the bank (including - the National Bank) on the terms of their return in nominal terms regardless of whether they should be returned upon request or through a period of, in whole or in part, to a predetermined premium or without it, the depositor, either directly transferred, on his behalf to third parties. /4/

Economic category of the deposit is part of the savings category. However, if the savings in general related to the distribution and redistribution of income and savings, the deposits only cover the scope of distributive relations.
Savings can be any type of investment. Deposit - is a form of savings.
You can identify the following essential features that characterize the specificity of the economic categories of deposit:

· Deposits include cash redistribution process of the banks, due to the presence of return on invested funds at the time due for withdrawal of contributions invested.


· Deposits are closely linked with the capital as part of personal income. The occurrence of such distribution relationships due to the fact that the deposit earns income, because at the time of removal of the contribution given to the interest paid.


· Deposits are characterized by a variety of species in terms of withdrawal.


It may be urgent investment and investing for the long term and demand deposits.

These peculiarities of distribution relations arising from the deposit operations, allow us to give him the following definition: "Deposits – is a set of special distributional relations between the parties over the formation of the deposit portfolio due to the monetary investments, reflecting the bank's liabilities in the balance."
Deposit transactions, or transactions deposits, the bank is taking a loan of money for a due date or without the establishment period. In banking practice, there is a definition: "in cases where money is made by the client for a certain period, before he undertakes not to require the bank money, they say that money is made in the contribution, but if the money can be withdrawn at any time, then we say that a bank customer opened a current account. " Contribution is known as one-time payments to the lending institutions to convert to a percentage and with the condition back to reclaim him the entire amount is fully /5/ P. 9-11 /.
In the most general terms deposits (from the Latin depositum - thing Devoted to storage) are the economic relations on the transfer of funds by a bank for temporary use. Attached to the bank free money for the investor act in a dual role: on the one hand, the role of money, on the other - in the role of capital for income.
Contribution (deposit) - this money (in cash or bank transfer, in national or foreign currency) sent to the bank by their owners for storage under certain conditions. Operations connected with the lure of money in deposits, referred to as deposit.
Consider the main types of deposits and develop a classification of deposits in different categories (Table 1.1).


Date: 2015-12-11; view: 168

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Chapter I. Theoretical aspects of deposit policy | Table 1.1 Deposit classification
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