The adverb is a word denoting circumstances or characteristics which attend or modify an action, state, or quality. It may also intensify a quality or characteristics.
In many cases the border-line between adverbs and words of the other classes is defined syntactically.
Adverbs vary in their structure. There are simple, derived, compound, and composite adverbs.
Simple adverbs are after, here, well, now, soon, etc.
Inderived adverbs the most common suffix is-ly, by means of which new adverbs are coined from adjectives and participles: occasionally, lately, immediately.
Compound adverbs are formed of two stems: sometimes, somewhere.
Composite phrasal adverbs consist of two or more word-forms, as a great deal, a little bit, far enough.
The only pattern of morphological change for adverbs is the same as for adjectives, the degrees of comparison. The three grades are calledpositive, comparative, andsuperlative degrees.
Adverbs that are identical in form with adjectives take inflections following the same spelling and phonetic rules as for adjectives:
However most disyllabic adverbs in-ly and all polysyllabic ones form the comparative and superlative analytically, by means ofmore andmost:
- more deeply
- most deeply
As with adjectives, there is a small group of adverbs with comparatives and superlatives formed from different stems(suppletive forms).Badly-worse-worst/
Most of the adverbs, however, stand outside the degrees of comparison.
According to their meaning adverbs fall into many groups. Here are the main ones:
Adverbs of place:outside, there, in front, etc.
Adverbs of time include those denoting duration (long, continually), interval (all day), timing (yesterday, today, recently, lately, immediately, once, at once, now), frequency (often, now and then, occasionally). Several of them denote an indefinite time - soon, yet, always, already, never.
Adverbs of manner:well, carefully, intentionally, silently, clearly, etc.
Adverbs of degree:thoroughly, very, much, completely, quite, rather
Types of phrases in Modern English. Their classification.
There are different approaches to the definition of a phrase.
Some believe it can consist only notional words. But majority says that a phrase is any syntactically organized group of words (between the words there’re certain syntactic relations).
e.g. In the room (=a phrase)
According to the ways in which phrases are used and constituted, we distinguish between 2 types: exocentric (non-headed) and endocentric (headed).
Phrases that belong to the same form class as one or both of its components areendocentric. All the grammatical functions of the endocentric phrase can be exercised by one or both of its components that can be substituted for a whole phrase.
The phrase that doesn’t belong to any of the form classes represented by either of its constituents is exocentric.