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2 LAW of BABYLON

One of the most detailed ancient legal codes was drawn up in about 1758 by B.C. by Hammurabi, a king of Babylonia. The entire code, consisting of 282 paragraphs, was carved into a great stone pillar, which was set up in a temple to the Babylonian god Marduk so that it could be read be every citizen.

The pillar, lost for centuries after the fall of Babylon in the 16 century B.C., was rediscovered. By a French archaeologist in 1901 amid the ruins of the Persian city of Susa. Hammurabi`s words were still legible. The pillar is now in the Louver museum in Paris.

The laws laid down by Hammurabi were more extensive than any that had gone before. They covered crime, divorce and marriage, the rights of slave owners and slaves, the settlement of debts, inheritance and property contracts, there were even regulations about taxes and the prices of goods.

Punishments under the code were often harsh. The cruel principle of revenge was observed:

An eye for an eye, and a tooth for a tooth, which meant that criminals had to receive as punishment precisely those injuries and damages they had inflicted upon their victims.

Not only murderers but also thieves and false accusers faced the death penalty. And a child , who hit his father could expect to lose the hand that struck the blow. The code outlawed private blood feuds and banned the tradition by which a man could kidnap and keep the woman he wanted for his bride. In addition, the new laws took account of the circumstances of the offender as well as of the offence. So a lower-ranking citizen who lost a civil case would be fined less than an aristocrat in the same position though he would also be awarded less if he won.

Nevertheless, Hammurabi`s laws represented an advance on earlier tribal customs, because the penalty could not be harder than the crime.

 

Exercise 1.Who was drown up the ancient legal codes by?

1. How many paragraphs did the entire code consist?

2. Where is the pillar now?

3. What did they cover?

4. What kind of punishments were under the code?

5. Who faced the death penalty?

6. Who hit his father could expect to lose the that struck the blow.

7. Who would be fined less in the same position?

8. What was drawn in about 1758?

 

Exercise 2. Fill in the gaps with necessary prepositions

 

One of the most detailed ancient legal codes was drawn in about 1758 by B.C. by Hammurabi, a king of Babylonia. The pillar, lost for centuries the fall of Babylon in the 16 century B.C., was rediscovered. By a French archaeologist in 1901 amid the ruins the Persian city of Susa. The laws laid down by Hammurabi were more extensive than any that had gone before. They covered crime, divorce and marriage, the rights of slave owners and slaves, the settlement of debts, inheritance and property contracts, there were even regulations about taxes and the prices of goods.

 

In addition, the new laws took account the circumstances of the offender as well as of the offence. So a lower-ranking citizen who lost a civil case would be fined less than an aristocrat in the same position though he would also be awarded less if he won.



Nevertheless, Hammurabi`s laws represented an advance ... earlier tribal customs, because the penalty could not be harder than the crime.

 

 


Date: 2015-12-11; view: 156


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