Underline the proper item to complete the sentences.
1. Come about 11 o’clock. I’ll have little / a little time then.
2. There was little / a little water on the mountain and we all got very thirsty.
3. Foreign languages are difficult, and few / a few people learn them perfectly.
4. I’m going to the USA with few / a few friends next week.
5. I’ve brought you few / a few sweets.
6. I have little / a little time to read news on the Internet and no time at all to read books.
7. Did you buy any furniture? “A little / a few.”
16. Fill in the gaps with little / a little or few / a few.
1. I'm afraid it's rained ….. times this summer, and that is why the grass is turning brown and dying. Farmers are very upset.
2. We're close to the project deadline, but there is still ….. time left.
3. There are still ..... minutes left, so we can wait for Maria.
4. Hurry up! We can miss our train; ..... time is left before the departure.
5. I can see ..... English magazines on the table. Are they yours?
6. Could you buy a ….. bottles of water for me?
7. Could I have ….. sugar for my tea, please?
17. Fill in the gaps with little / a little or few / a few.
1. I have ….. questions about engines.
2. The assembly hall was almost empty: there were ….. people in it.
3. I bought a new engine ….. months ago.
4. If you have ….. spare time, look through this book. You will find….. stories about history of engines which are rather interesting.
5. She gave him ….. water to wash his face and hands.
6. My bus goes in ….. minutes.
7. We have ….. knowledge of this phenomenon.
1. Work in pairs. Look at the products in the pictures. What do you think makes their design good or bad?
2. Why do you think design is necessary in industry?
3. Read the text and find the expressions which mean:
a. the art and science involved in the creation of machine-made products;
b. farm machinery, industrial tools, transportation equipment;
c. air conditioners, irons, electrical kettles, microwave ovens and other domestic electrical devices.
Industrial design is the art and science involved in the creation of machine-made products. It is concerned with aesthetic appearance as well as with functional efficiency. The successful design gives profit to its manufacturer and pleasure to its owner.
The term industrial design was originated in 1919 by the American industrial designer Joseph Sinel. Initially, industrial designers dealt only with machine-made consumer products. Eventually, however, they started designing capital goods, such as farm machinery, industrial tools, transportation equipment, and the planning of exhibitions, commercial buildings and packaging.
CRITERIA. Under prevailing standards of design, a product should have beauty of line, color, proportion, and texture; high efficiency and safety of operation; convenience or comfort in use; ease of maintenance and repair; durability. A consideration basic to all good design is the factor of realistic cost.
PRODUCT DESIGN. Today industrial design has been applied to practically all consumer products, notably to home appliances, such as air conditioners, irons, office equipment, such as typewriters, dictaphones, electronic communications equipment, such as radios, television sets, and others.
METHODS. Every design problem requires special procedures, timing, and techniques, but there is a general routine applicable to all. After the industrial designer is informed of the needs of the client, specialists associated with the designer conduct a study of competitive products. A design program is planned, and preliminary designs of the proposed product are then sketched on the basis of the available plant facilities. Rough sketches are chosen for further refinement and study, and the client is then presented with design studies, often in the form of a small model. Following the selection of the approved design, working drawings indicating the choice of materials and the specifications for finishing and assembly are prepared. A handmade working model is then manufactured and submitted to the client for approval. In the case of an automobile, for example, one or several are handmade and tested at proving grounds before final machine dies are ordered and production begins.