The Zaporozhian Cossacks or Zaporozhians lived beyond the rapids of the Dnieper River, the land also known under the historical term Wild Fields in today’s Central Ukraine. Today much of its territory is flooded by the waters of Kakhovka Reservoir.
The Zaporozhian Sich grew rapidly in the 15th century from serfs fleeing the more controlled controlled parts of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. It Became established as a well-respected political entity with a parliamentary system of government. During the 16th, 17th and as well into the 18th century, the Zaporozhian Cossacks became a strong political and military force that challenged the authority of the Polish-Lithuanian commonwealth, the Tsardom of Russia, and the Crimean Khanate.
The Zaporozhian Host as a military political establishment has developed based upon unique traditions and customs, called the Cossack Code. The host had its own military and territorially administrative division: 38 kurins, and five to eight palankas as well as an original system of administration with three levels: military leaders, military officials, and leaders of march. All officership (military starshyna) was elected by the General Military Council for a year on January 1. Based on the same customs and traditions the rights and duties of officers were explicitly codified. Zaporozhian Host has developed an original judicial system, in a base of which laid the customary Cossack Code. Historians refer to the Zaporozhian Sich as a”Cossack republic”, as the highest power in it belonged to the assembly of all its members, and because its leaders were elected.
The highest body of administration in the Zaporozhian Host was the Sich Rada. The council was the highest legislative, administrative, and judicial body of the Zaporozhian Host. Decisions of the council were considered the opinion of the whole host and obligated to its execution each member of the Cossack comradeship. At Sich Rada were reviewed issues of internal and foreign policies, conducted elections of military starshyna, division of assigned land, punishment of criminals who committed the worst crimes.
There was a military court, which severely punished violence and stealing among compatriots, bringing women to the Sich, consumption of alcohol in periods of conflicts. There were also churches and schools, providing religious and basic education. The Eastern Orthodox Church was preferred and was a part of the national identity.
At that time, the Cossacks were one of the finest military organizations in Europe, and were employed by Russian Polish, and French empires.
Law of Ukraine
The legal system of Ukraine is based on the framework of civil war, and belongs to the Romano-Germanic legal tradition. The main source of legal information is codified law. Historically, the Ukrainian legal system is primarily influenced by the French civil code, Roman Law, and traditional Ukrainian customary law.
The primary law making body is the Ukrainian Parliament. The power to make laws can be delegated to lower governments or specific organs of the State, but only for a prescribed purpose.
Ukrainian law is commonly divided into Public law, Private law, and international law. These areas of the legal system are further subdivided into Civil law including Family law, Inheritance law, Contract law and Commercial law, Intellectual Property law and Land law, as well as Criminal law, Constitutional law and Administrative law.
Civil law regulates the everyday life of citizens and other legal entities, such as corporations. The main code of Ukrainian civil law is the Civil Law Code of Ukraine. The code introduces new types of business contracts into the legal practice, including franchising, rent service and inherited contracts.
Criminal law deals with the prosecution and punishment of criminal offenses. The Criminal law contains the written criminal laws of Ukraine. There is no capital punishment in Ukraine. The maximum criminal punishment is life imprisonment. Parliament of Ukraine has the power of amnesty for prisoners not serving life sentences.
Constitutional law frames the constitution and the structure of Ukraine. It regulates the powers of democratic institutions, the organization of elections and the division of power between central and local government law.
Administrative law is the area of law that regulates the operation of the various levels of Ukrainian Government, including the process for people and legal entities to appeal decisions by the government. International law involves the application of international laws in Ukraine.
George Washington was the first President of the United States, the Commander-in-Chief of the Continental Army during the American Revolutionary War, and one of the Founding Fathers of the United States. He presided over the convention that drafted the current United States Constitution and during his lifetime was called the “father of his country”.
Washington was unanimously elected as the first president in 1789. He remains the only president to receive the totality of electoral votes. On April 30, 1789 Washington was inaugurated, taking the first presidential oath of office. He said, “I do solemnly swear that I will faithfully execute to the best of my ability, preserve, protect and defend the Constitution of the United States.”
George Washington proved an able administrator; he established many precedents in the functions of the presidency, including the cabinet form of government and messages to Congress. He set the standard for tolerance of opposition voices and conducted a smooth transition of power to his successor. An excellent delegate and judge of talent and character, he talked regularly with department heads and listened to their advice before making a final decision. Washington was not a member of any political party and hoped they would never emerge though his closest advisors formed two factions, setting the framework for the future Party system.
Washington stressed the necessity and importance of national union, the value of the Constitution, and the rule of law. He referred to morality as a necessary spring of popular government. He was the ”first in war – first in peace – and first in the hearts of his countrymen.”
An act is an instrument that records a fact or something that has been said, done, or agreed. Acts generally take the form of legal instruments of writing that have probative value and executive force. Common types of acts are legislative, judicial, and notarial acts.
Legislative acts or statutes are the cornerstone of statutory or regulatory law. They may include in a monarchial system a royal edict, proclamation, or decree setting forth or establishing law as it affects all citizens. In parliamentary systems, acts passed by a legislature are known as acts of Parliament or acts of Congress.
A notarial act is any written narration of facts drawn up by a civil-law notary authenticated by his signature and official seal. A notarial act is the only lawful means of proving those facts of which it is recognized record, whereas on other matters it is usually inadmissible, because it is non-official.
The components of an act in public are:
1) protocol (preamble) which sets out introductory matters, noting notary’s name and status, date and venue of act, appearance of one or more parties and witnesses before the notary, and capacity the appearer is acting in; how the notary verifies the facts or allegations in the corpus;
2) corpus (operative part) which recites appearer’s intent, narrates facts and accomplished procedures, sets out contract, arrangement, obligation or other legal act;
3) eschatocol (conclusion) which certifies that the document was read over to and acknowledged by the appearer, and signed by the appearer in the notary’s and witnesses’ presence, all in due form, and that the conditions of applicable local law concerning the formalities of document execution have been met and finish with a signature block.
Notarial certificates come in full forms or short forms. A full form includes information like the date, venue, appearer’s appearance, proof of identification, as well as the principal attestation. A short form usually includes the venue, date, and “attestation clause”, a typical example of which is the following one: “IN FAITH AND TESTIMONY WHEREOF I, the said Notary, have hereunto set and subscribed my hand and affixed my Notarial seal on this day (day) of month (month) two thousand fifteen.” Or: “IN WITNESS WHEREOF, I have hereunto set my hand and seal of office.”