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On, instead of, after, object to, because of, think of, by

1. When the farmers had used these lands they moved to another place. – After having used these lands the farmers moved to another place.

2. When the vegetation had been cut and burned they used the lands for farming.

3. To prolong the use of the land the farmers add to the soil chemical fertilizers.

4. If the abundance of plankton was sharply reduced, the scientists think life on earth would be imperiled.

5. People don’t take care of the environment but affect ocean life on a broad scale.

6. Streams become open sewers because many major river systems are now polluted.

7. Many scientists today don’t want to apply fertilizers and insecticides.

8. When humans had appeared on the islands they destroyed this isolation.


Unit 13. Natural Resources in Daily Use

Study the information below:

Gerundial Complexes
1. Possessive Pronoun + Gerund: my, your, his, her, its, our, their The value of soil is enormous because of its being used in great amounts
2. Noun in Possessive Case + Gerund Peter’s, Americans’, The world remembers peoples’ having shed blood over gold, silver, iron, coal, oil, and uranium

Exercise 1. Fill in the gaps with the following forms of gerundial complexes:

volatile matter escaping, its being mined,petroleum having been represented,its having,its being considered,people having called,their having been formed, their being used, their burning, the mineralshaving been distributed,

1. Metallic and non-metallic ores, the fuels, and the construction materials such as cements, clays, sand, gravel, and building stones are known for their being used in construction of modern cities and villages.

2. Much of the trouble between nations took place because of unequally on the earth’s surface.

3. Coal is still a very important fossil fuel for about a billion and a half tons annually.

4. Peat contains about 80 per cent moisture without a form of coal.

5. Lignite, the lowest rank or kind of coal is known fora heating value of 7 400 British Thermal Units.

6. The higher grades of bituminous coal store well and they are known for with an almost smokeless flame.

7. Anthracite forms thanks to out of soft coal.

8. The coals of western United States are known formany millions of years later.

9. Petroleum is the proper name for what oil

10. Once I read of by the remains of microscopic plants.


Exercise 2. Substitute subordinate clauses with gerundial complexes according to the model below:


We insisted that he should come with us. – We insisted on his coming with us.


1. We insisted that they inform us about the fact that the United States produces over two billion barrels a year. 2. Does the government of your country mind if the citizens will double the fresh water usage in the future? 3. Scientists are looking for the ways to prevent pollution and waste of surface waters. 4. We were informed that pollution has sharply reduced the available amount of fresh water. 5. There is no hope that Americans will reduce the usage of fresh water soon. 6. I’ve heard that only 3 percent of fresh water has been consumed at thermoelectric plants last century.


Date: 2015-12-11; view: 170

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