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USE 1 Future in Past

Future in the Past is used to express the idea that in the past you thought something would happen in the future. It does not matter if you are correct or not. Future in the Past follows the same basic rules as the Simple Future. "Would" is used to volunteer or promise, and "was going to" is used to plan. Moreover, both forms can be used to make predictions about the future.

Examples:

  • I told you he was going to come to the party. plan
  • I knew Julie would make dinner. voluntary action
  • Jane said Sam was going to bring his sister with him, but he came alone. plan
  • I had a feeling that the vacation was going to be a disaster. prediction
  • He promised he would send a postcard from Egypt. promise

REMEMBER No Future in Time Clauses

Like all future forms, Future in the Past cannot be used in clauses beginning with time expressions such as: when, while, before, after, by the time, as soon as, if, unless, etc. Instead of using Future in the Past, you must use Simple Past.

Examples:

  • I already told Mark that when he would arrive, we would go out for dinner. Not Correct
  • I already told Mark that when he arrived, we would go out for dinner. Correct

ACTIVE / PASSIVE

Examples:

  • I knew John would finish the work by 5:00 PM. Active
  • I knew the work would be finished by 5:00 PM. Passive
  • I thought Sally was going to make a beautiful dinner. Active

I thought a beautiful dinner was going to be made by Sally. Passive

 

 

Active / Passive Verb Forms

Sentences can be active or passive. Therefore, tenses also have "active forms" and "passive forms." You must learn to recognize the difference to successfully speak English.

 

Active Form

In active sentences, the thing doing the action is the subject of the sentence and the thing receiving the action is the object. Most sentences are active.

[Thing doing action] + [verb] + [thing receiving action]

Examples:

Passive Form

In passive sentences, the thing receiving the action is the subject of the sentence and the thing doing the action is optionally included near the end of the sentence. You can use the passive form if you think that the thing receiving the action is more important or should be emphasized. You can also use the passive form if you do not know who is doing the action or if you do not want to mention who is doing the action.

[Thing receiving action] + [be] + [past participle of verb] + [by] + [thing doing action]

Examples:

Active / Passive Overview

Tense Active Passive
Simple Present Once a week, Tom cleans the house. Once a week, the house is cleaned by Tom.
Present Continuous Right now, Sarah is writing the letter. Right now, the letter is being written by Sarah.
Simple Past Sam repaired the car. The car was repaired by Sam.
Past Continuous The salesman was helping the customer when the thief came into the store. The customer was being helped by the salesman when the thief came into the store.
Present Perfect Many tourists have visited that castle. That castle has been visited by many tourists.
Present Perfect Continuous Recently, John has been doing the work. Recently, the work has been being done by John.
Past Perfect George had repaired many cars before he received his mechanic's license. Many cars had been repaired by George before he received his mechanic's license.
Past Perfect Continuous Chef Jones had been preparing the restaurant's fantastic dinners for two years before he moved to Paris. The restaurant's fantastic dinners had been being preparedby Chef Jones for two years before he moved to Paris.
Simple Future will Someone will finish the work by 5:00 PM. The work will be finished by 5:00 PM.
Simple Future be going to Sally is going to make a beautiful dinner tonight. A beautiful dinner is going to be made by Sally tonight.
Future Continuous will At 8:00 PM tonight, John will be washing the dishes. At 8:00 PM tonight, the dishes will be being washed by John.
Future Continuous be going to At 8:00 PM tonight, John is going to be washing the dishes. At 8:00 PM tonight, the dishes are going to be being washedby John.
Future Perfect will They will have completed the project before the deadline. The project will have been completed before the deadline.
Future Perfect be going to They are going to have completed the project before the deadline. The project is going to have been completed before the deadline.
Future Perfect Continuous will The famous artist will have been painting the mural for over six months by the time it is finished. The mural will have been being painted by the famous artist for over six months by the time it is finished.
Future Perfect Continuous be going to The famous artist is going to have been painting the mural for over six months by the time it is finished. The mural is going to have been being painted by the famous artist for over six months by the time it is finished.
Used to Jerry used to pay the bills. The bills used to be paid by Jerry.
Would Always My mother would always makethe pies. The pies would always be madeby my mother.
Future in the Past Would I knew John would finish the work by 5:00 PM. I knew the work would be finished by 5:00 PM.
Future in the Past Was Going to I thought Sally was going to make a beautiful dinner tonight. I thought a beautiful dinner was going to be made by Sally tonight.

Test your knowledge of active and passive voice with this grammar exercise. Each sentence given below is in the active voice. Change it into passive voice.



1. He sings a song.

……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..

2. The boy killed the spider.

……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..

3. Help him.

……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..

4. Farmers sow maize in the rainy season.

……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..

5. Are you writing a letter?

……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..

6. The workers were digging a canal.

……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..

7. I will finish the job by the end of this week.

……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..

8. Have you finished your job?

……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..

9. They have informed him of his mother’s death.

……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..

10. They took all the necessary precautions.

…………………………………………………………………………………

Find out the verbs in the following sentences and state whether they are in the active voice or passive voice.

1. The boy killed the spider.

2. This house was built by my grandfather.

3. The boy was bitten by a snake.

4. The loud noise frightened the cows.

5. His command was promptly obeyed.

6. All the milk was drunk by the cat.

7. She opened the door.

8. A stone struck me on the head.

9. I have just posted the letter.

10. The minister inaugurated the exhibition.

 

GERUND

The gerund looks exactly the same as a present participle, but it is useful to understand the difference between the two. The gerund always has the same function as a noun (although it looks like a verb). Some uses of the gerund are covered on this page. A separate page deals with verbs that are followed by the gerund.

THE GERUND AS THE SUBJECT OF THE SENTENCE

EXAMPLES

  • Eating people is wrong.
  • Hunting tigers is dangerous.
  • Flying makes me nervous.
  • Brushing your teeth is important.
  • Smoking causes lung cancer.

THE GERUND AS THE COMPLEMENT OF THE VERB 'TO BE'

EXAMPLES

  • One of his duties is attendingmeetings.
  • The hardest thing about learning English is understanding the gerund.
  • One of life's pleasures is having breakfast in bed.

THE GERUND AFTER PREPOSITIONS

The gerund must be used when a verb comes after a preposition. This is also true of certain expressions ending in a preposition, for example the expressions in spite of & there's no point in.

EXAMPLES

  • Can you sneeze without opening your mouth?
  • She is good at painting.
  • She avoided him by walking on the opposite side of the road.
  • We arrived in Madrid after driving all night.
  • My father decided against postponing his trip to Hungary.
  • There's no pointin waiting.
  • In spite of missing the train, we arrived on time.

THE GERUND AFTER PHRASAL VERBS

Phrasal verbs are composed of a verb + preposition or adverb.

EXAMPLES

  • When will you give up smoking?
  • She always puts off going to the dentist.
  • He kept on asking for money.
  • Jim ended up buying a new TV after his old one broke.

There are some phrasal verbs that include the word "to" as a preposition for example to look forward to, to take to, to be accustomed to, to get around to, & to be used to. It is important to recognise that the word "to" is a preposition in these cases because it must be followed by a gerund. It is not part of the infinitive form of the verb. You can check whether "to" is a preposition or part of the infinitive. If you can put the pronoun "it" after the word "to" and form a meaningful sentence, then the word "to" is a preposition and must be followed by a gerund.

EXAMPLES

  • I look forward to hearing from you soon.
  • I look forward to it.
  • I am used to waiting for buses.
  • I am used to it.
  • She didn't really take to studying English.
  • She didn't really take to it.
  • When will you get around to mowing the grass?
  • When will you get around to it?

THE GERUND IN COMPOUND NOUNS

In compound nouns using the gerund, it is clear that the meaning is that of a noun, not of a continuous verb. For example, with the word "swimming pool" it is a pool for swimming in, it is not a pool that is swimming.

EXAMPLES

  • I am giving Sally a driving lesson.
  • They have a swimming pool in their back yard.
  • I bought some new running shoes.

THE GERUND AFTER SOME EXPRESSIONS

The gerund is necessary after the expressions can't help, can't stand, to be worth, & it's no use.

EXAMPLES

  • She couldn't help falling in love with him.
  • I can't stand being stuck in traffic jams.
  • It's no use trying to escape.
  • It might be worth phoning the station to check the time of the train.

 

 


Gerunds and Infinitives with Verbs Part 1

Download the complete list in PDF here
See this page for verbs which change their meaning when followed by the gerund or the infinitive.

Here are some of the most common verbs that are usually followed by the gerund:

enjoy I enjoyed living in France
fancy I fancy seeing a film tonight
discuss We discussed going on holiday together
dislike I dislike waiting for buses
finish We've finished preparing for the meeting
mind I don't mind coming early
suggest He suggested staying at the Grand Hotel
recommend They recommended meeting earlier
keep He kept working, although he felt ill
avoid She avoided talking to her boss

And here are some common verbs followed by 'to' and the infinitive:

agree She agreed to give a presentation at the meeting
ask* I asked to leave early / I asked him to leave early
decide We decided to go out for dinner
help* He helped to clean the kitchen / he helped his flatmate to clean the kitchen
plan She plans to buy a new flat next year
hope I hope to pass the exam
learn They are learning to sing
want* I want to come to the party / I want him to come to the party
would like* I would like to see her tonight / I would like you to see her tonight
promise We promised not to be late

*We can use an object before the infinitive with these verbs.

(Note that 'help' can also be followed by the infinitive without 'to' with no difference in meaning: 'I helped to carry it' = 'I helped carry it'.)


Date: 2015-12-11; view: 108


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