Compound sentence contains at least two main clauses based on parataxis (coordination); units of syntactically equal ranks. Coordinating conjunctions (and, but, or, so) and sentence adverbials (thus; however).
Complex sentence is a polypredicative construction (with two or more predicative lines) built on the principle of subordination (hypotaxis). Derivational relation constructional (clausalization).
Subordinating connectors (subordinators):
- pronominal words (take a notional position): I dont know when she comes. Do you remember the book that won the Booker Prize?
- pure conjunctions (dont take a notional position): When she comes, Ill tell her about you. He said that he was a doctor.
Classification of subordinate clauses:
- functional principle (functions of words, correlative with parts of sentence): subject, object, predicate, attribute etc).
- categorical principle (semantics, correlative with parts of speech): substantive-nominal (of primary notional position); qualification-nominal (of secondary nominal position); clause of adverbial position.
Substantive-nominal clauses: subject, predicative, object clauses (What I want to say is that I know the answer; What I want to say (theme) is that I know the answer (rheme); I dont know what I want to say).
Qualification-nominal clauses: attributive (descriptive and limiting); appositive (I have an impression that you dont trust me).
Subject clause (it-sentences): It is essential (theme) that you should be there (rheme).
Predicative clause: She looks as if she has done smth odd; The problem would have been how to tell him all.
Object clause (sequence of tenses): She says he is here; She said he was here.
Attributive clause: who, whom, whose, which, that characterizing smth. Descriptive (additional characteristics): This a book which can be useful. Limiting (restrictive - identification): This is a book which I bought yesterday. It-sentence: It is all I can do.
Adverbial clauses: time, place, manner of comparison, cause (reason), condition, concession (even if, although, even though), purpose, parenthesis (if you ask me; as far as I know; you know; if Im not mistaken).
Parenthetical clauses: introductory (expressing different modal meanings): As far as I remember, the man was .; deviational (expressing commenting insertions of varied semantic character): They used to be, and this is no longer a secret, very close friends.
Cleft-sentences: it (it is he who has done it for us; it is in Rome that we had holidays); what (what we need is love); that (thats how grammar works).
Subordination arrangement: parallel (homogeneous/heterogeneous) and consecutive.
Parallel homogeneous: he said that it was his problem and I should live.
Parallel heterogeneous: the man whom I saw yesterday told me that I should leave.
Consecutive: he says that he knows the man whom I met yesterday.
Semi-composite sentence - a polypredicative construction consisting of more than one predicative line which are expressed in fusion.
Composite: predicative line (leading, dominant) + predicative line.
Semi-composite: predicative line + semi-predicative line.
The syntactic status: structurally simple sentence (one full predicative line); semantically composite (two situations). Intermediary status.
The types of the semi-composite sentences:
Semi-complex: The bell ringing, the students left the room (When the bell rang, the students left the room).
Position-sharing: subject-sharing (He woke up famous He woke up. He was famous), object-sharing (I saw her dancing I saw her. She was dancing), causative relations (I made him do it; She got her watch repaired; She had her bag stolen; I painted the wall white).
Direct linear expansion:
- attributive complication (The sun, setting in the ocean, looks terrific. The typed letter was sent in the morning)
- adverbial complication (Entering the hall, the students took their places. The bell ringing, the students left the hall. When a student, I used to skip my classes)
- nominal complication (I bought a dictionary for you to study. What to do is a problem. The question is where to go next. I appreciate you helping me. Your helping me out makes me happy)