WAYS OF RENDERING THE MEANING OF THE SUBJECTIVE WITH THE INFINITIVE CONSTRUCTIONS
This predicative infinitival construction or complex, as it is often referred to in grammars, consists of the secondary subject, usually noun or pronoun, and secondary predicate expressed by the infinitive. The latter is mostly separated from the nominal part of the complex subject by the primary predicate: Mr. Chritchlow had never been known to be glad to see anybody. (Bennett) or: You are to live here for the next six months. (B.Shaw)
The secondary subject may often be expressed by the anticipatory pronoun it lt,was considered a virtue not to talk unnecessar-ily at sea. (Hemingway).
Translation of the infinitival complexes into Ukrainian depends on or is predetermined by some factors, the main of which are the following:
1) the lexical meaning of the verb or rather the semantic group to which the verb (after which the syntactic construction is used) belongs;
2) the voice form (active or passive) of the subjective (nominative) infinitive;
3) the structure of the parts of the sentence and that of the sentence itself, which may be simple or composite;
4) the translator's choice of the means and language units conveying the meaning of the subjective with the infinitive constructions.
Thus, when used with the verbs expressing permission, request, intention, order, compulsion (to allow, to permit, to order, to command, to force, to make, to request, to intend, etc.), the subjective with the infinitive construction may be rendered in Ukrainian in the following ways:
a) with the help of an indefinite personal sentence;
b) with the help of an impersonal sentence having the passive verbal predicate in -но, -то;
c) with the help of an object subordinate clause, for example:
A. The inmates were ordered not to try to leave their wards. (USA Today)
1) В 'язням наказали не робити спроб залишати камери:
2) В 'язням було наказано/наказали не робити спроб...
3) В'язням наказали, щоб вони не робили спроб залишати камери.
В. The subjective with the infinitive construction used with the verbs of physical perception (to feel, to hear, to see, to taste, etc.) can be translated:
a) with the help of the one-member introductory indefinite personal sentences followed by an object subordinate clause as in the following sentence:
He was seen the first to come. Бачили, що він прийшов (D. Carter) першим.
A certain mar?w&sseen tQ Бачили, що якийсь чоловік, reel into Mr.Twain's hotel last заточуючись, ввалився вчора night. (M. Twain) ввечері в готельний номер
Alongside the introductory definite personal sentence, sometimes the impersonal introductory sentence may be used in Ukrainian to render the meaning of the nominative with the infinitive construction. Thus the sentence below can be translated in two ways:
The garden gate was heard to bang. (Lawrence) 1) Чули/було чути, як 2) Почулося, як у садку хляпнула хвіртка в садок. хляпнула хвіртка.
Similarity in the sentence below where the Ukrainian reflexive verb performs the functions of the introductory/subject clause:
It was felt to be hopeless. Відчувалося. що це (Galsworthy) безнадійно./Відчувалося. що з
цього нічого не буде.
This sentence may have in Ukrainian one more quite unexpected condensed version of a two-member simple sentence: 1) Відчувалася безнадія. 2) Відчувалася якась безвихідь.
С. Similar ways of translation are employed when the subjective with the infinitive complex/constrtuction is used with the verbs of mental perception (to believe, to deny, to expect, to know, to suppose, etc.):
He is supposed to be work- Вважають (вважається), що ing in the sanatorium. (Cusack) він нібито працюєв санаторії.
Irene was known to take very sudden decisions. (Galsworthy)
Знали, що Айріні приймає зовсім несподівані рішення (здатна на несподівані рішення).
Depending on the context, the translator may suggest some other structural (and, naturally, semantic) versions for the last sentence. As for example:
Айріні знали як людину, що здатна на зовсім несподівані (непередбачені) рішення. Знали, що Айріні може приймати зовсім непередбачені рішення.
D. When used after the verbs of saying and reporting (to say, to report, to tell, etc.), the nominative with the infinitive complex is translated with the help of the introductory indefinite-personal sentence followed by an object subordinate clause. The choice of the form of this introductory clause is predetermined by the verb with which the subjective with the infinitive construction is used. Thus, the verb say, for example, can not have а ^сяЛсь equivalent in Ukrainian, whereas the verb reportcan have both the -ся form as well as the third person plural form introduced by the conjunction як:
Paper is said to have been invented in China. (Bennett)
Кажуть, що папір винайдений/винайдено в Китаї.
But: US Secretary of State is reported to have arrived in Geneva. (The Guardian)
1) Повідомляють, що державний секретар США прибув до Женеви.
2) Як повідомляють, державний секретар США прибув до Женеви.
3) Повідомляється, що державний секретар США прибув до Женеви.
Apart from the verbs of saying and reporting the verbs to expect, to understand, and to see are used in oral and written mass media in the same functions. Their meaning may sometimes differ from their commonly known vocabulary meanings. For example:
Sax satesthis year are expected to blow past last year's 67000. (USA Today)
But: The rally was seen to be much smaller than had been expected. (The Guardian)
Очікується, що продаж платівок саксофонної музики цього року перевищить торішню на 67,000 (штук)
Виявилося (як виявилося), мітинґ зібрав менше людей, ніж очікувалося.
The sentence can also be translated with the help of the impersonal -ся verbal clause introduced by the conjunction як: Як переконалися, мітинґ зібрав менше людей, ніж спершу очікувалось.
The verb understand with which the subjective with the infinitive construction is used, has a peculiar meaning - згідно наявних відомостей:
The trial is understood to be Згідно наявних відомостей. held next week. (The Guardian) суд______відбудеться
Еліс, здавалося, не чула про мене./Здавалося. Еліс не чула про мене.Вважали/здається, вона брала участь у першому польоті до Альфи 73.
Е. When used with the verbs to appear, to chance, to happen, to prove, to seem, or with the mood phrases to be sure, to be certain, to be likely/unlikely the subjective with the infinitive constructions may have different interpretations in Ukrainian. Thus, the verbs seem, believe, appear, etc, which function as simple verbal predicates in English are converted into parenthetic words or introductory сь-1-ся impersonal/definite personal sentences (Вважається/ вважають, здається):
«Л//се didn't seem tc heard of me.» (Braine)
She was believed to hi taken part in the first flight to Alpha 73 (J.Christoper)
Other contextual semantic variants of sentences with the predicate verbs to appear, to believe, to seem, etc. followed by the secondary subject expressed by the subjective infinitive may be the adverb очевидно or the modal particle ніби/нібито:
He seemed to be thinking of Він, здавалося, думав про something else. (Dreiser) щось зовсім Інше.
The sentence can also have some other equivalent in Ukrainian: Його думки, очевидно, були зайняті чимось іншим/Він ніби думав щось (про щось) зовсім інше.
Note. The structure of some English sentences containing the subjective with the infinitive constructions may undergo certain slight changes in Ukrainian translation:
Mrs. Cowperwood, in spite of Місіс Каупервуд, the differences in their years, ap~ незважаючи на різницю в peared to be a fit mate for him at роках, виявилась для нього під this time. (Dreiser) цю пору гідною партнеркою.
Sentences with the subjective with the infinitive constructions
may have predicates expressing the modal meanings of certainty, uncertainty, probability, etc. (to be sure, to seem, to be certain, to be likely/unlikely, etc). Such sentences are not transformed in Ukrainian translation, i.e., they maintain their simple structure, with the predicates turning into modal words/particles or adverbs such as можливо, певне/напевне, навряд/чи/неможливо, обов'язково:
The fire is certain to produce Пожежа обов'язково panic in the morning. (Dreiser) зчинить паніку взавтра
But he is sure to marry her. (T.Hardy)Alice did not seem to have heard me. (Braine)
Але він обов'язково (певно-таки) одружиться з нею.
Аліс, очевидно/здавалося. не почула мене.
Ukrainian semantic equivalents for the modal words likely/unlikelyfollowed by the subjective infinitive may also be clauses of modal meaning:
є можливість (існує ймовірність), не виключена можливість:
Існує можливість, що вона споживатиме в Мексиці забруднені продукти чи питиме забруднену воду.«... навряд чи можна в одній людині поєднати все, що хочеш.»
She was likely to consume contaminated food or water in Mexico. (Hailey)
«... we're unlikely to get everything we want in one man.» (Snow)
The last English sentence and sentences like that having nominal predicates with implicit modal meanings of supposition, doubt, uncertainty, etc. followed by the subjective infinitive may have other lexico-semantic equivalents in Ukrainian to express their meaning. Among these are the modal phrases as цілком імовірно/цілком можливо, не виключена можливість, може бути/статися: Цілком імовірно/Цілком можливо, що вона буде споживати в Мексиці забруднені продукти чи питиме забруднену воду. Може статися, що...
The subjective with the infinitive constructions may be used with some other English verbs as will be seen in the exercise below. They may sometimes influence the choice of faithful Ukrainian equivalents for these English sentences as well.
Exercise IV. Suggest possible contextual equivalents for the subjective with the infinitive constructions below and translate the sentences into Ukrainian:
1. They were seen to just touch each other's hano^s, and look each at the other's left eye only. (Galsworthy) 2. «She wants, I'm sure, to be seen today.» (J.G.Griffin) 3. Paper is said to have been invented in China. 4. Her situation was considered very good. (Bennett) 5.... he was impelled to reestablish their lines of communication (Seghal) 6. ... the injured teacher had an operation for a head wound and is said to be improving. (The Guardian) 7. She was not expected to reply, but she did. (Dreiser) 8. «They're certainly entitled to think that, and they're entitled to feel respect for their opinions ...» (H.Lee) 9. The economic problems facing France are certain to have strong repercussions. (The Guardian) 10. They were told to get the children back to sleep. (H.Fast) 11. ... the fetters that bound their tongues were considered to be locked and the key thrown away. (M.Twain) 12. He was thought to be honest and kindly. (Dreiser) 13. He was never expected to recover his equilibrium. 14. «You appear to be in poor shape, all the same.» 15. Her name appeared to be Millicent Pole. 16.1 happen to know young Tasburgh who isn't with his ship. 17. «I just happened to drive up.» (Galsworthy) 18. Bob finds it impossible to keep pace with stroke, because stroke rows in such an extraordinary fashion. (Jerome K.Jerome) 19. ... he seemed to be asking what was the matter with me. (Snow) 20. «I seem to have promised that I'd take you into my laboratory.» 21. «I seem to be getting over it a little.» (M.Wilson) 22. The tower seemed to rock in wind. (Lawrence) 23. For about ten days we seemed to have been living on nothing but cold meat, cake, and bread and jam. (Jerome K.Jerome) 24. The goods are reported to have been awaiting shipment for several days. (The Guardian) 25. The girl seemed to perceive that a question of taste was concerned. 26. He seemed to take rather a fancy to me. 27. She seemed, indeed, to have heard it before. 28. Some fellows seem to know everybody and exactly how to work them. (Galsworthy) 29. The child is likely to face a first period of uncertainty and bewilderment on being taken into care. (Schimmels) 30. Being subject to endorsement by the Cortes, the «reform» is likely to be of little practical significance. (The Guardian) 31. The money is unlikely to be repaid, unless there is a fundamental change in the policies of the United Federation ... 32. The latest cease fire agreement between the worrying forces in Bosnia is unlikely to hold. (The Guardian)