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The editorial approach

The World Book Encyclopedia of Science

Volume

Chemistry Today


World Book, Inc.

a Scott Fetzer company

itt Fetzer com

Chicago


Acknowledgments


Consultant EditorMartin Sherwood

Consultants and Contributors

C. A. Finch Malcolm Frazer Alan Katritzky Percy Praill Reginald Price Martin Sherwood

Harold Baum Waldemar Bojczuk John Bonner Neil Carlson Andrew Coghlan Nigel Davis Ronald Denney

Artists and Designers

Eric Drewery Mick Saunders MickGillah

Bull Publishing Consultants Ltd

Harold Bull John Clark Eric Drewery Kate Duffy

Wendy Allen Martyn Page Polly Powell Hal Robinson Sandy Shepherd


1994 printing published by:

World Book, Inc. 525 W. Monroe Chicago, IL 60661

© Verlagsgruppe Bertelsmann International, GmbH, Munich 1984,1989

All Rights Reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval sys­tem or transmitted in any form or by any means electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without the prior per­mission of Verlagsgruppe Bertelsmann Inter­national GmbH.

Library of Congress Catalog Card No. 90-70521 ISBN: 0-7166-3393-0

Printed in the United States of America


16 17 18 19 20 21 99 98 97 96 95 94


Contents


Preface..................................................................... 6

Introduction............................................................ 8

Atoms, elements, and molecules................ 12

Chemical symbols and chemical bonding . 14

Key chemical reactions........................................ 16

Major groups of elements................................... 22

Hydrogen.............................................................. 24

Alkali metals........................................................... 26

Copper, silver, and gold................................. 28

Alkaline earths................................................ ... 30

Zinc, cadmium, and mercury ......................... 32

The boron group ............................................... 34

Inorganic carbon ........................................ 36

Silicon to lead .............................................. ... 38

The transition metals....................................... 40

Nitrogen................................................................. 46

Phosphorus to bismuth................................... 48

Oxygen ................................................................. 50

Sulfur to polonium................................................. 52

The halogens ................................................. 54

The rare gases ................................................ 56

The scandium group and the lanthanides . 58

The actinides and beyond ............................ 60

Metals and alloys ......................................... 62

Complex inorganic compounds ...................... 64

Organic chemistry................................................ 66



Saturated aliphatic hydrocarbons....................... 68

Unsaturated aliphatic hydrocarbons ........ ... 72

Aromatic hydrocarbons ................................. 74

Halogenated hydrocarbons................................. 78

Alcohols................................................................. 80


Aldehydes and ketones ............................... ... 82

Organic acids........................................................ 84

Esters................................................................. 86

Nitrogen compounds .......................................... 88

Organo-sulfur, organo-phosphorus, and

organo-metal compounds.................................... 92

Complex organic compounds ............................ 94

Color in organic chemistry ........................... 96

Organic synthesis............................................ ... 98

Polymers ........................................................... 100

Biochemistry....................................................... 104

Polysaccharides and sugars .......................... 106

Lipids................................................................. 108

Amino acids and proteins ................................. 110

Enzymes............................................................... 112

Nucleic acids .................................................... 114

Biochemical energy............................................. 116

Biochemical messengers.................................... 122

Biotechnology .................................................... 124

Analytical chemistry........................................... 126

Classical analysis............................................ . 128

Spectroscopic analysis ..................................... 130

Advanced instrumental analysis .................. 132

Thermal analysis ................................................ 134

Chromatography................................................. 136

Automated analysis ............................................ 140

Uses of analysis.................................................. 142

Glossary...............................................................145

Index................................................................. 152

Credits ................................................................155


Preface


Chemistry Today, like the other volumes in this series of publications about the sciences, deals with a specific scientific area. This vol­ume is concerned with chemistry. The subject is introduced with a discussion of its funda­mental concepts: molecules, elements, formu­las, and key chemical reactions. Then follows an account of the principal groups of ele­ments. Finally, each of the last three sections deals with a major specialty within the disci­pline of chemistry as a whole: organic chemis­try, biochemistry, and analytical chemistry.

The editorial approach

The object of the series is to explain for an av­erage family readership the many aspects of science that are not only fascinating in them­selves but are also vitally important for an un­derstanding of the world today. To achieve this the books have been made straightfor­ward and concise, accurate in content, and are clearly and attractively presented. They are also a readily accessible source of scientific in­formation.

The often forbidding appearance of tradi­tional science publications has been com­pletely avoided. Approximately equal propor­tions of illustrations and text make even the most unfamiliar subjects interesting and at­tractive. Even more important, all of the draw­ings have been created specially to comple­ment the text, each explaining a topic that can be difficult to understand through the printed word alone.

The thorough application of these princi­ples has created a publication that encapsu­lates its subject in a stimulating way and that will prove to be an invaluable work of refer­ence and education for many years to come.

The advanceof science

One of the most exciting and challenging as­pects of science is that its frontiers are con­stantly being revised and extended, and new developments are occurring all the time. Its advance depends largely on observation, ex­periment, dispute, and debate, which generate theories that have to be tested and even then


stand only until they are replaced by better concepts. For this reason, it is difficult for any science publication to be completely compre­hensive. It is possible, however, to provide a thorough foundation that ensures any such ad­vances can be comprehended—and it is the purpose of each book in this series to create such a foundation, by providing all the basic knowledge in the particular area of science it describes.


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