It is often claimed that psychology began in 1879 when Wilhelm Wundt (1832—1920) opened his laboratory at the University of Leipzig. Wundt had been trained to practise medicine, had studied physiology, and had served as a laboratory assistant to the great Helmholtz. He also held an academic position in philosophy. Wundt was a scientist-philosopher with an interest in such psychological processes as sensation, perception, attention, word associations, and emotions.
Although others might be credited with founding psychology as a separate science (for example, Helmholtz), Wundt gets credit for getting psychology recognized as a science. In fact, Wundt wrote in the preface of the first edition of his Principles of Physiological Psychology (1874): "The work I here present is the attempt to mark out a new domain of science." Clearly, Wundt's intention was to define the parameters of a new science.
Additionally, it is no accident that psychology began in Germany. Experimental physiology was well established in Germany, which was not the case in France or England. Biology and physiology were stressed in Germany, while physics and chemistry were stressed in France and England. In short, the climate was perfect in Germany for the emergence of the new science of psychology.
For Wundt, psychology was the scientific study of the mind. Under carefully-controlled laboratory conditions, Wundt and his assistants tested and retested his hypotheses. The work performed in Wundt's laboratory focused on the discovery of basic elements of thought. Wundt wanted no less than to systematically describe the basic elements of mental life. Because the psychologists in Wundt's laboratory were mostly interested in describing the structure of the mind and its operations, Wundt's approach to psychology is referred to as structuralism (the school of psychology founded by Wundt that studied the mind by attempting to break mental activity into its component parts). The primary method used by structuralists to study the mind is introspection. Introspection involves describing mental responses to conscious experience in great detail. For example, if one of Wundt's assistants was introspecting on an apple, it would not be enough to say that it was red and shiny. Instead, one would have to describe the actual sensations experienced and the feelings elicited by those experiences.
In the early 20th century the number of psychologists increased rapidly. Structuralism was criticized on many grounds, specifically its restricted definition of psychology and its introspective method. A number of new schools of psychology developed early in the 20th century, usually in opposition to a point of view or approach stressed by one or more existing schools.
Why Man Builds
I. Memorize the following words:
a canal - êàíàë
irrigation - îðîøåíèå
reclamation works – ìåëèîðàòèâíûå ðàáîòû
water supply - âîäîñíàáæåíèå
a water turbine - ãèäðîòóðáèíà
tî harness – îáóçäàòü, èñïîëüçîâàòü
to provide - îáåñïå÷èâàòü
to relieve - îáëåã÷àòü, îñâîáîæäàòü
an arduous task- òðóäíàÿ çàäà÷à
Read the text
Why Man Builds
In his never-ending struggle lo tame nature, man has been driven by four basic needs: agriculture, building, communications, and power. The practical art and science of civil engineering arose and grew lo meet these needs.
When primitive men gave up their life of wandering, they became tillers of fields, settling in small communities. To find shelter from the weather and storage for his harvest, man became a builder. In the course of time, different settlements came to depend on each other for the exchange of goods. And so there had to be links between settlements to provide passage for men and materials. Eventually, men learned lo harness the power of nature to relieve them of some of the arduous tasks of everyday life.
Agriculture gave rise to hydraulic engineering, which developed from the irrigation basins and canals of ancient people, from their transient reclamation works to the vast irrigation and reclamation projects of today. Building gave rise to structural engineering, which developed from the monumental architecture of Egypt, Greece, and Rome, to the great framed structures of today. Communications gave rise to the widest variety of civil engineering works. From the curliest times man has used tracks, mountain passes, rivers and sea for transport, and now, in the 20th century he also uses the air. As his civilization became more intricate, so the need for safe and speedy passage for himself and his material goods began to grow. In time, his tracks developed from the jungle path lo the paved Roman road, and lo the great concrete highways of today.
Power was first derived from the ox trudging in a circle, and man treading a wheel, from primitive capstan and rope pulley block; then from the windmill, and finally from today's water turbine at the foot of a massive dam. As world population increases, so the provision of adequate water and power supply grows-more urgent.
II. Answer the questions:
1.Whid basic needs forced primitive men to tame nature?
2. Why did man become a builder?
3. What works did hydraulic engineering develop from?
4. Where did the widest varied of civil engineering works derive from?
5. How did ancient people get power?
6. What engineering problems do people have to solve nowadays?
III. Match the words with their definitions:
1. Civil engineering a) The design construction and maintenance of bridges roads, aqueducts and related public works
2. Structural engineering b) The design construction and maintenance of irrigation and reclamation project, canals, dams
3. Hydraulic engineering c) The design and construction of all kinds of buildings.
IV. Complete the sentences:
1. Hydraulic engineering developed
It deals with ...
2. Structural engineering derived from..
It covers ...
3. Civil engineering appeared as … It concerns...
V. Match the pairs of synonyms:
1. to increase a) lo reduce
2. to develop b) sufficient
3. to decrease c) to advance from one stage to another
4. to derive d) to grow
5. to relieve e) pressing
6. adequate f) to free
7. urgent g) to originate
8. intricate h) complicated
VI. Fill in the gap with an appropriate word.
1. The science of civil engineering ____ andgrew lo meet the needs of man.
2. The number of irrigation basins and canals ______ rapidly.
3. Building gave _____to gave to structural engineering.
4. Ancient people__________ the first dams to harness the power of water.
5. Nature _______the task for people to develop hydropower engineering.
The growth of population ______ the problem of adequate water supply.
VII. Speak on the topic "I've chosen civil engineering as a career because ... Highlight at least 5 points; which make the profession so attractive".
VIII. Read the following text and name some striking constructions, which you know
Strength in stone
Stonehenge, England was begun nearly 5.000, years ago. The builders had no machines, or even wheels lo help them. They Had to drag huge blocks of stone, each weighing as much as 13 hippos, from 40km (25- miles) away. The total hours worked by the builders of Stonehenge adds up to 30 million hours.
The Panama Canal, which links the Pacific and Atlantic Oceans, was built, between 1904-1014. To build the 82km (51 mile) long canal. 43,000 men dug up enough soil to cover over 14.000 soccer fields. Many workers died from yellow fever and malaria and two whole years were spent clearing the swamps where disease-carrying mosquitoes bred.
The Taj Mahal in India look 20.000 labourers 20 years to complete. It is made of while marble inlaid with precious stones. The Taj was built by Emperor Shah jahan as a lomb lor his wife. On its completion, the emperor had the architect's head cut off to stop him designing a more beautiful building.
Roads for Romans
The Romans began building roads across their empire in about 312BC By AD200 they had built about 85,000 km (53.000 miles) of roads, enough to run twice around the world. The roads were so well built that some have lasted for over 2 000 years. Most modern roads last for less than 50 years.
In December 1990 French and British miners became the first people to walk
between the two countries since the Ice Age, 19.000 years ago when the Channel was dry land. To bore the Channel Tunnel deep under the sea between Britain and France, enough chalky soil was dug up to make a medium-sized town.
The 11 åð century chapel of Saint-Michel-d'Aiguilhe stands on an ancient extinct volcano near Le Puy France. Its builders had to haul their material and tools up to the top of the 79m (260ft) high cone in baskets.
Up, up in the air
Many of the steel frames for skyscrapers in the USA are put up by Mohawk Indians from Montreal, Canada. They walk across beams just wider than your foot, over 244m (800 ft) above ground.
At a gallop
The Tacoma Narrows Bridge in the USA was one of the worst ever engineering feats. In high winds, its deck swung up and down in giant waves. The bridge was intended to withstand winds of 190kph (120mph). Four months alter it opened, though, it collapsed in winds of 67kph (42mph).