1. Describe these people using the suitable idioms and phrasal verbs.
1. The teacher always Е before starting the course.
2. The teacher always Е before going back to school after a school trip.
3. Harry is the Е: he always gets good marks and the teacher is very friendly with him.
4. I went to a Е and I started my own business. I have one hundred cows now.
5. Sarah always buys dozens of books. She loves science fiction books, novels and poetry. She always ...
6. I'm going to study really hard so that I can ...
7. I can't believe I Е another test. My grades are going down the tube.
8. Mike is such a.... He knows everything.
9. We need to Е our Spanish since we are going to Mexico next month for vacation.
10. Max and Jo Е yesterday. They went to Disneyland instead of going to class.
2. Each of these people has said two sentences: one from the upper column and one from the lower column. Match them.
1. I missed that test question, but I totally knew the answer.
2. Man, I'm tired of school.
3. Don't forget to hand in your homework.
4. You could hear a pin drop as the professor handed out the final exam.
5. We really need to hit the books if we want to do well in the exam on Friday.
6. Max is such a know-it-all.
7. I havenТt signed up for the tennis tournament next weekend.
8. The teacher gave us a pop quiz today.
9. I wanted to ask her out, but she wouldn't even give me the time of day.
10. Tom always jots down during lectures.
a) He thinks he knows everything.
b) I think she's a little stuck-up.
c) I think I'll drop out and do a little travelling.
d) Next time IТll bring your copybooks and weТll analyse the results.
e) This exam is really important for us.
f) He thinks that in this case he will remember much information.
g) I think I blew it.
h) I just drew a blank.
i) It was so because we were very excited.
j) IТm going to do it a bit later.
Why Man Builds
I. Memorize the following words:
a canal - канал
irrigation - орошение
reclamation works Ц мелиоративные работы
water supply - водоснабжение
a water turbine - гидротурбина
tо harness Ц обуздать, использовать
to provide - обеспечивать
to relieve - облегчать, освобождать
an arduous task- трудна€ задача
Read the text
Why Man Builds
In his never-ending struggle lo tame nature, man has been driven by four basic needs: agriculture, building, communications, and power. The practical art and science of civil engineering arose and grew lo meet these needs.
When primitive men gave up their life of wandering, they became tillers of fields, settling in small communities. To find shelter from the weather and storage for his harvest, man became a builder. In the course of time, different settlements came to depend on each other for the ex≠change of goods. And so there had to be links between settlements to provide passage for men and materials. Eventually, men learned lo harness the power of nature to relieve them of some of the arduous tasks of everyday life.
Agriculture gave rise to hydraulic engineering, which developed from the irrigation basins and canals of ancient people, from their transient reclamation works to the vast irrigation and reclamation projects of today. Building gave rise to structural engineering, which developed from the monumental architecture of Egypt, Greece, and Rome, to the great framed structures of today. Communications gave rise to the widest variety of civil engineering works. From the curliest times man has used tracks, mountain passes, rivers and sea for transport, and now, in the 20th century he also uses the air. As his civilization became more intricate, so the need for safe and speedy passage for himself and his material goods began to grow. In time, his tracks developed from the jungle path lo the paved Roman road, and lo the great concrete highways of today.
Power was first derived from the ox trudging in a circle, and man treading a wheel, from primitive capstan and rope pulley block; then from the windmill, and finally from today's water turbine at the foot of a massive dam. As world population increases, so the provision of adequate water and power supply grows-more urgent.
II. Answer the questions:
1.Whid basic needs forced primitive men to tame nature?
2. Why did man become a builder?
3. What works did hydraulic engineering develop from?
4. Where did the widest varied of civil engineering works derive from?
5. How did ancient people get power?
6. What engineering problems do people have to solve nowadays?
III. Match the words with their definitions:
1. Civil engineering a) The design construction and maintenance of bridges roads, aqueducts and related public works
2. Structural engineering b) The design construction and maintenance of irrigation and reclamation project, canals, dams
3. Hydraulic engineering c) The design and construction of all kinds of buildings.
IV. Complete the sentences:
1. Hydraulic engineering developed
It deals with ...
2. Structural engineering derived from..
It covers ...
3. Civil engineering appeared as Е It concerns...
V. Match the pairs of synonyms:
1. to increase a) lo reduce
2. to develop b) sufficient
3. to decrease c) to advance from one stage to another
4. to derive d) to grow
5. to relieve e) pressing
6. adequate f) to free
7. urgent g) to originate
8. intricate h) complicated
VI. Fill in the gap with an appropriate word.
1. The science of civil engineering ____ andgrew lo meet the needs of man.
2. The number of irrigation basins and canals ______ rapidly.
3. Building gave _____to gave to structural engineering.
4. Ancient people__________ the first dams to harness the power of water.
5. Nature _______the task for people to develop hydropower engineering.
The growth of population ______ the problem of adequate water supply.
VII. Speak on the topic "I've chosen civil engineering as a career because ... Highlight at least 5 points; which make the profession so attractive".
VIII. Read the following text and name some striking constructions, which you know
Strength in stone
Stonehenge, England was begun nearly 5.000, years ago. The builders had no machines, or even wheels lo help them. They Had to drag huge blocks of stone, each weighing as much as 13 hippos, from 40km (25- miles) away. The total hours worked by the builders of Stonehenge adds up to 30 million hours.
The Panama Canal, which links the Pacific and Atlantic Oceans, was built, between 1904-1014. To build the 82km (51 mile) long canal. 43,000 men dug up enough soil to cover over 14.000 soccer fields. Many workers died from yellow fever and malaria and two whole years were spent clearing the swamps where disease-carrying mosquitoes bred.
The Taj Mahal in India look 20.000 labourers 20 years to complete. It is made of while marble inlaid with precious stones. The Taj was built by Emperor Shah jahan as a lomb lor his wife. On its completion, the emperor had the architect's head cut off to stop him designing a more beautiful building.
Roads for Romans
The Romans began building roads across their empire in about 312BC By AD200 they had built about 85,000 km (53.000 miles) of roads, enough to run twice around the world. The roads were so well built that some have lasted for over 2 000 years. Most modern roads last for less than 50 years.
In December 1990 French and British miners became the first people to walk
between the two countries since the Ice Age, 19.000 years ago when the Channel was dry land. To bore the Channel Tunnel deep under the sea between Britain and France, enough chalky soil was dug up to make a medium-sized town.
The 11 ер century chapel of Saint-Michel-d'Aiguilhe stands on an ancient extinct volcano near Le Puy France. Its builders had to haul their material and tools up to the top of the 79m (260ft) high cone in baskets.
Up, up in the air
Many of the steel frames for skyscrapers in the USA are put up by Mohawk Indians from Montreal, Canada. They walk across beams just wider than your foot, over 244m (800 ft) above ground.
At a gallop
The Tacoma Narrows Bridge in the USA was one of the worst ever engineering feats. In high winds, its deck swung up and down in giant waves. The bridge was intended to withstand winds of 190kph (120mph). Four months alter it opened, though, it collapsed in winds of 67kph (42mph).