generatequickly, automatically, spontaneously, internally from
Essential Academic Vocabulary
Complete each sentence with an appropriate adverb.
1. A smile conveys a message of happiness_ ert-ectively_ to another person.
2. The psychologist deduced the truth____________ from her patient's facial expressions.
3. Most people can differentiate____________ between a real and a simulated smile.
4. A smile tends to generate a positive response___________ from another person.
5. Taxes are deducted____________ from an employee's paycheck.
6. Facial expressions evolved___________ to communicate with others.
7. The newlyweds displayed their happiness____________ to the wedding guests.
8. It usually takes some time for international students to orient themselves____________ to
the new environment.
tlThe following common collocations have specific meanings. Discuss these meanings. Then write five meaningful sentences that include some of these collocations.
a conflict of interest a mental note a margin of error
qualitative research deviant behavior a second-generation American
a vague notion a deviation from the norm seating capacity
a mental block a process of deduction identical twin
1J had a vague, noiion "thai fd seen ihai man be-fore, but) could ni quiie remember where.
Chapter 11 • Psychology 115
e. Word Parts
Each of the following words contains the word part psych, meaning "the mind." In each word, notice the word part that gives a clue about the word meaning and the suffix that indicates the part of speech. Match the words with their meanings.
1. ____________ relating to the study and treatment of mental illness
2. ____________ _ a medical doctor who treats people suffering from mental illness
3. ____________ a person who studies the mind and its effect on behavior and emotions
4. ____________ _ a movie or play that examines the complicated relationships of the characters
5. ____________ _ the study of the body in relation to the mind
6. ____________ _ relating to the way the mind works
7. ____________ a way of treating someone who is mentally ill through discussion of
thoughts and feelings
8. ____________ someone who has a serious and permanent mental illness that causes
violent or criminal behavior
9. ____________ an illness caused by fear or anxiety rather than a physical problem
10. ____________ the study of the mind and how it works
See Appendix 111 for additional information on paraphrasing.
Rewrite the following sentences by using synonyms, changing the grammar structure, and changing the order of ideas. The meaning of the sentence should remain the same.
1. Charles Darwin proposed that facial expressions are genetically determined and passed on biologically from one generation to the next.
According ~to Char Us Darwin, expressions of -the face, are inherited -through genes.
116 Essential Academic Vocabulary
2. Evidence for innate facial expressions comes from studies showing that, for most
fundamental emotions, people in all cultures show intrinsically similar facial responses to analogous emotional stimuli.
3. Whereas some fundamental emotional expressions are innate, many others are neither innate nor universal.
4. Facial expressions become more intense and change more frequently when people have mental images of social scenes rather than solitary scenes.
5. Few people are capable of successfully contracting the muscles around their eyes during a simulated smile, so this feature can be used to differentiate "lying smiles" from genuine ones.
6. English has over 500 emotion-related words, but some emotion words in other languages have no English equivalent.
Write a response to one of the following topics. Include at least six to eight vocabulary wordsin your paragraph.
Chapter 11 • Psychology
1. Advice Column
You are the writer of an advice column for a newspaper. Choose one of the letters below and write an appropriate response.
Dear Dr. Jane--
} come, from a small town in Iowa, but now fm attending a city college. fve been dating a great guy, John, for almost a year, and we are, -thinking about getting married when we graduate,. John is an international student, but until recently wed never had any intercultural conflicts. Now there's a problem, though. Johns parents are coming to visit next month and, apparently, they are not pleased that he is dating an American. John thinks J should stay out of the way while his parents are here, but J feel that his parents need to get to know me if we are going to have a future together, fm really afraid that this problem is going to ruin our relationship. VIease give me some advice,
Heartsick in California
Dear Dr. Tom:
I've been struggling financially to get through college, and I rely on my campus job to help pay for expenses. I've been working in this job for six months, and I got a promotion last month to a better position with more money. Unfortunately, my new boss doesn't seem to like me. He always gives me nasty looks, never smiles, and barely says a word to me. He's totally inflexible as well. Last week my car broke down, and I arrived late. He almost fired me, even though I had called to tell him the problem. I think he's being totally unfair, and I'm sure he'll find some way to get rid of me. I need to keep this job to pay for my rent. What can I do to keep this job and make my boss like me?
Desperate in Ohio
2. Character Description
English has over 500 emotion-related words, some of which are listed here. Think about a person you know who is very emotional. Write five words of emotion that you associate with this person. Then write a paragraph in which you describe how this person demonstrates these emotional characteristics. Add specific details to illustrate how these emotions were triggered.
Essential Academic Vocabulary
xed from Douglas A. Bernstein, Louis A. Penncr, Alison Clarke-Stewart, and Edward J. Roy, Psychology, 6th cd. (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 2003), 426.
Certain geometric patterns are common to threatening masks in many cultures. Go to a public place in your college, such as a cafeteria or a campus park, and ask ten people to participate in your survey. Show them the chart of geometric patterns illustrated above and ask them to choose which member of each pair is more threatening.
Tabulate the results below; then summarize your findings briefly to the class. Compare and contrast the findings of your classmates.
Pair Discussion: Physical, Emotional, and Verbal Reactions
Some facial expressions are innate and predictable. Others vary according to the social and cultural situation. Discuss with a partner your physical, emotional, and verbal reactions to the following images or situations. Make the appropriate facial expressions to display your emotions clearly.
seeing a rat meeting a cute baby smelling old eggs failing an exam receiving a gilt watching a horror movie hearing that someone has died seeing a snake-feeling a spider on your back smelling a good meal
smelling freshly cut grass
seeing a puppy
being bitten by a mosquito
announcing a wedding
listening to a sad story
showing disappointment that you did not win the prize
reporting a car accident
asking for a loan
For more activities related to this chapter, go to the Essential Academic Vocabulary website.
Chapter 12 • History
4. What were working conditions like at this time? Give examples of how and where men, women, and children worked.
5. What were some consequences of the Industrial Revolution for rich people and for poor people?
1.What was the Industrial Revolution? Where and when did it take place?
2. Before the Industrial Revolution, what kind of work did most poor people do and where did they live? What happened to these people when the Industrial Revolution began?
3. What changes in society happened during the Industrial Revolution? How did it change the way people lived?
THE IMPACT OF THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION
Although inventions were the most visibleand dynamicaspects of the Industrial Revolutionin Europe, many other transformationsin the hierarchiesof society, politics, transportation,and the economy took place. These early changes—including smoky cities, slum neighborhoods, polluted water, child manuallabor in mines and textile mills—transformed entire regions into industrial landscapes.
The most dramatic environmental changes brought about by industrialization occurred in the expansionof urban areas in Europe. London, one of the largest cities in 1700 with 500,000 inhabitants, grew to 959,000 by 1800 and exceeded 2,363,000 by 1850, by then the largest city in the world. Smaller towns grew even faster. Manchester's population increased eightfold in a century. Liverpool grew sixfold in the first 60 years of the nineteenth century.
People who benefited greatly from the transitionto industrialization poured their new wealth into fine country estates, new homes, churches, museums, and theaters and lived comfortable lives, out of contact with the workers, who lived in dangerous, overcrowded, and unhealthy conditions. As poor migrants streamed in from the countryside, developers accommodatedtheir need for housing by building cheap row houses for the migrants to rent. Often, several families had to live in one small room. People disposedof their sewage and trash by throwing it out the windows to be washed down the streets. The poor kept pigs and chickens, the rich kept horses, and pedestrians stepped into the street at their own risk. Air pollution from burning coal got steadily worse. People drank water drawn from wells and rivers contaminated by sewage and industrial runoff.
To the long list of preindustrial diseases such as smallpox, dysentery, and tuberculosis, industrialization added exposureto new medicalproblems. Rickets, a bone disease caused by alack of sunshine, became common in the dark and smoky industrial cities. Steamships brought cholera from India, causing great epidemics that struck the residents of poor neighborhoods especially hard. In the 1850s, when the average life expectancy in England was 40 years, it was only 24 years in Manchester, and around 17 years in Manchester's poorest neighborhoods because of the high incidenceof infant mortality.
122 Essential Academic Vocabulary
Most industrial jobs at this time were unskilled and repetitive, and work regulations were not strictly enforced.Workdays were long with few breaks, and industrial accidents were common
30 and could ruin a family. Workers who performed one simple task over and over had little sense of motivationor connection to the final product. Unlike even the poorest preindustrial farmer or artisan, factory workers were always subordinateto the bosses and had no inputover their tools, jobs, or working hours and thus had little incentivebeyond mere survival.
Women workers were concentrated in textile mills, earning one-third to one-half as much as
35 men. Young unmarried women worked to support themselves or to save for marriage. Married women took factory jobs when their husbands were unable to support the family. Mothers of infants faced a hard choice: whether to keep their babies with wet nurses at great expense or bring them to the factory and keep them quiet with opiates. Rather than working together as afamily network,husbands and wives increasingly worked in different places.
40 Even with both parents working, poor families found it hard to sustaineven the most basic
level of life. As in preindustrial societies, the perspectiveof parents was that children should contribute to their upkeep as soon as they were capable. The first generation of workers brought their children with them to the factories and mines as early as age five or six; they had little choice since there were no public schools or daycare centers. Employers enabled,and even
45 implicitlyencouraged, this practice because children were cheaper and more obedient than
adults and, because of their size, could be assignedto tie broken threads or crawl under machines to sweep the dust. Mine operators also used children to pull coal carts along the low passageways. Changes as radicalas the Industrial Revolution could not occur without underlyingpolitical instabilityand ideologicalconflict, which ultimatelyled to workers' protests and strikes for the
50 end of exploitationand for the enhancementof working conditions. Another response to the hard conditions was emigration.Between 1830 and 1890, approximately 10 million Europeans emigrated to the United States in pursuitof a better life.
Adapted from Richard W. Bulliet, Pamela Kyle Crossley, Daniel R. Headrick, Steven W. Hirsch, Lyman J. Johnson, and David Northrup, The Earth and Its Peoples: A Global History, 2nd ed. (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 2003), 471-74.
:abulary in Context
Determine how the boldface words are used in the reading. Then for each item, choose the word or phrase that is closest in meaning.
1. Circle any topics that are NOT discussed in the reading, "The Impact of the Industrial Revolution."
• manual labor
• family size
• working conditions for women
• the causes of the Industrial Revolution
• child labor
• housing conditions
• population shifts
• political beliefs
• medical problems
2. Which of the following three cities had the largest population in the world in 1850? London Manchester Liverpool
3. According to the article, workers lived in "dangerous, overcrowded, and unhealthy
conditions" (lines 13 and 14). Find at least one fact in the third paragraph to support each of these conditions.
c. unhealthy —
124 Essential Academic Vocabulary
4. List three facts from the reading about each of the following groups of people.
factory owners 1.
male workers 1,
u n m arried female 1.
married female 1.
5. What were two consequences of worker dissatisfaction during the Industrial Revolution?
Q Making Inferences
1. According to the reading, life expectancy was 40 years in London but only 17 years in the worst neighborhoods of Manchester. What can you infer about Manchester from these facts?
2. How did the type of work done by workers in factories and mines impact workers' health?
3. What can you infer about working conditions in the United States during this time period?
It is not enough to know only a word's meaning. You also need to know its pronunciation, spelling, grammatical patterns, collocations, associations, connotations, and related word forms.
Chapter 12 • History 125
3. Dictionary Skills
Study the dictionary entry for contact. Complete the sentences with the appropriate collocations.
COn*tact (kon'takt') n. 1. [U] The touching or coming together of persons or things: Don't let the chemicals come in contact with your skin. 2. [U] The condition of being in communication: We lost contact with our former neighbors after they moved. 3. [C] A person who is in a position lo be of help; a connection: His uncle has numerous contacts in the government. 4. [C] a. A connection between two conductors that allows an electric current to flow. b. A part or device that makes or breaks a connection in an electrical circuit: the contacts of a switch. 5. [C] A contact lens: Have you seen my contacts? -v. (kon'takt' or kan takt'). -tr. 1. To bring (sthg.) into contact with sthg. else; touch: If water contacts the paper, it will leave a mark. 2. To get in touch with (sbdy.); communicate with: The salesman contacted several customers by telephone. -intr. To be or come into contact: Bare wires that contact might cause afire.
business contacts contact sports
contact information electrical contact
contact lenses established contact contact number
face-to-face contact loss of contact physical contact
1. My desk light is not working. There seems to be a problem with the____________
2. These days, many people who have visual problems prefer to wear__________ rather
3. American football and rugby are examples of___________ , in which players are allowed
to touch each other when they are trying to get the ball.
4. Janet hasn't yet made____________ with her new online friend, but they e-mail each other
5. Some cultures demonstrate their affection through____________ , while other cultures
prefer not to touch.
6. David Brown made a lot of useful___________ at the marketing conference he attended
7. Donna Jones has been doing business in Asia for many years, so she has a lot of there who always help her when she visits.
8. My coworker gave me her____________ in case I need to discuss an important work issue
over the weekend.
9. The pilot reported____________ with air traffic control at the airport, but he was able to
land the plane safely.
10. When I started my new job, I had to fill out a form listing all my___________ , including
my telephone number and e-mail address.
Essential Academic Vocabulary
4. Word Forms
E3 Chart Completion
Complete the chart with the corresponding noun or verb forms.
23 Word Forms in Sentences
Create five new sentences about the impact of industrialization, including a nounand a verbfrom the chart in the previous exercise in each sentence.
.j The expansion of industry in the nineteenth century caused factory owners to exploit
il The following nouns are typically found in combination with specific verbs. Match the nouns with the verbs to make meaningful phrases.
immigrants the law
the speed limit workers
a career happiness
a criminal injuries
Match the situations in the following sentences with the collocations that describe them.
group dynamics ideological differences medical advice mood enhancers
press exposure public transportation survival rate
tax incentives transitional government ultimate responsibility
2. 3. 4.
I don't have my own car, so I take the train or bus to work.
The way that people work together can be very important.
Some people use alcohol or drugs to feel better.
After the revolution, a new group of politicians ruled the country until elections could take place.
The doctor told Jim to rest and drink plenty of liquids until he feels better.
Jennifer and Susan used to be close friends, but now they rarely see each other because they do not agree on political and social issues.
Refunds from the government are meant to encourage businesses to expand.
In the past, most people died of cancer, but today many people recover and lead normal lives.
The marriage of the two movie stars was widely reported in the media.
The president makes the final decisions about how the company operates.
Essential Academic Vocabulary
6. Word Parts
trans- (across, changed)
The prefix trans- means "across" or "changed."
id Match the verbs in the left column to the item that is moved or altered in the right column.
Htf Make the following verbs into nouns by adding the appropriate noun suffix endings where needed.
Writing a Summary
See Appendix IVTor additional information on summarizing.
Reread the article "The Impact of the Industrial Revolution" OR find an article about the Industrial Revolution on the Internet. Take notes in your own words about the main ideas in the text and use your notes to summarize the reading. Include at least six to eight vocabulary wordsin your summary.
Chapter 12 • History 129
Write a response to one of the following topics about living in the time of the Industrial Revolution. Include at least six to eight vocabulary words in your paragraph.
1. You are a young married woman with three children under the age of six. You have recently moved to Manchester with your husband and children to find work in the textile factories. Describe a day in your new life, adding details about your housing situation, your job and your husband's job, the problems of childcare, and your concerns about the unhealthy environment you now have to live in. Compare this situation with your former life in a small farming village. Have you made the right decision in moving to Manchester?
2. You are a young unmarried man. You have been working in the coal mines of northern England for ten years (since you were a child often), and you are very dissatisfied with your present life. You have recently become involved with labor conflicts, and you are now on strike trying to enhance the working conditions for the coal miners in your region. You are considering the possibility of emigrating to the United States, where you hope you would find a better life. Write a letter to your parents in the countryside describing your working conditions and explain to them why you are thinking about emigrating.
H& A Cooperative Learning Research Project
As a small group, choose a topic related to the Industrial Revolution to research. Topics could include the following:
• the causes of the Industrial Revolution • working in a textile mill
• child labor • health problems
• housing conditions • transportation
• population shifts • working conditions for women
• working in a coal mine • emigration
Individually, search the Internet for one or two interesting articles about the topic your group has chosen. Read each own article several times and take notes on the main ideas and the supporting details.
Using only brief notes, each group member should give a short oral summary about the content of the article to the whole group. Group members should ask questions and discuss issues raised in each presentation.
Finally, as a group, prepare a short oral summary of the key information about your topic collected from all group members and present it to the entire class.
130 Essential Academic Vocabulary
Using new vocabulary words from this chapter, act out the following role-plays.
For more activities related to this chapter, go to the Essential Academic Vocabulary website.
1. You are discussing with a friend the ethics of buying cheap clothing from large discount stores. There are ideological differences between you and your friend regarding this issue. From your perspective, purchasing these clothes contributes to the exploitation of poor workers in developing countries. On the other hand, your friend believes that the global economy actually enhances the lives and income level of the workers who produce the clothes. Support each opinion with specific examples.
2. You are a young married man with a promising career in advertising. Your wife is a journalist with a major newspaper. You and your wife are expecting your first child in a few months, and you are faced with the difficult issue of childcare. You both know that good chiidcare is expensive and difficult to find. You are considering the possibility of one of you working part-time to take good care of the baby, but you have not yet decided who will give up the full-time job. Try to resolve this issue with your wife by figuring out who is going to stay at home with the baby.
WHAf 5 THE Fool doing? I l .
TOLD HIM To ME IK FROKT oF THE OVMiftAW
ESSENTIAI ACADSMK V0CA31)LARV
1. Do you vote in local and national elections? Explain why you choose to vote or not to vote.
2. How do you choose which political candidate to vote for?
3. Which type of media influences you the most to vote for particular issues or candidates?
4. How can you evaluate whether the information you see or hear about political candidates is true?
5. In your opinion, should there be limits on the money political candidates can spend during an election campaign?
6. What do you know about election camoaigns in other countries? How do you get this information?
7. How do you think political campaigns might change in the future?