UNIT 28. Must and can't 13 page
In the same way you can say:
none of/neither of/any of/either of + whom (people)
none of/neither of/any of/either of which (things)
some of/many of/much of/(a) few of + which (things)
some of/many of/much of/(a) few of whom (people
both of/half of/each of/one of/two of (etc.) + whom (people)
both of/half of/each of/one of/two of (etc.) + which (things)
* Tom tried on three jackets, none of which fitted him.
* Two men, neither of whom I had ever seen before, came into my office.
* They've got three cars, two of which they never use.
* Sue has a lot of friends, many of whom she was at school with.
C. Which (not 'what')
Study this example:
[Jim passed his driving test.] [This] surprised everybody. (2 sentences)
[Jim passed his driving test,] _[which] surprised everybody._(relative clause)(1 sentence)
In this example, which = 'the fact that he passed his driving test'. You must use which (not 'what') in sentences like these:
* Sheila couldn't come to the party, which was a pity. (not '...what was a pity')
* The weather was very good, which we hadn't expected. (not '...what we hadn't
For what, see also Units 91C and 92D.
95.1 Make two sentences from one using a relative clause. Use the sentence in brackets to make the relative clause.
1. Mr Carter is very interested in our plan. (I spoke to him on the phone last night.)
_Mr Carter, to whom I spoke on the phone last night, is very interested in our plan._
2. This is a photograph of our friends. (We went on holiday with these friends.)
This is a photograph ---.
3. The wedding took place last Friday. (Only members of the family were invited to it.)
The wedding ---.
4. Sheila finally arrived. (We had been waiting for her.)
5. We climbed to the top of the tower. (We had a beautiful view from there.)
95.2 Write sentences with all of/most of etc. + whom/which.
1. Mary has three brothers. (All of her brothers are married.)
_Mary has three brothers, all of whom are married._
2. We were given a lot of information. (Most of the information was useless.)
We were given ---.
3. There were a lot of people at the party. (I had met only a few of these people before.)
4. I have sent her two letters. (She has received neither of these letters.)
5. Ten people applied for the job. (None of these people were suitable.)
6. Kate has got two cars. (She hardly ever uses one of them.)
7. Norman won 50,000 pounds. (He gave half of this to his parents.)
8. Julia has two sisters. (Both of her sisters are teachers.)
95.3 join a sentence from Box A with a sentence from Box B to make a new sentence. Use which.
1. Sheila couldn't come to party.
2. Jill isn't on the phone.
3. Nell has passed his examinations.
4. Our flight was delayed.
5. Ann offered to let me stay in her house.
6. The street I live in is very noisy at night.
7. Our car has broken down.
1. This was very nice of her.
2. This means we can't go away tomorrow.
3. This makes it difficult to contact her.
4. This makes it difficult to steep.
5. This was a pity.
6. This is good news.
7. This meant we had to wait four hours at the airport.
1. Sheila couldn't come to the party, _which was a pity._
2. Jill isn't ---.
UNIT 96 ~ing and ~ed clauses (the woman talking to Tom, the boy injured in the accident)
A. A clause is a part of a sentence. Some clauses begin with ~ing or ~ed. For example:
Do you know the woman _talking to Tom?_(~ing clause)
The boy _injured in the accident_(~ed clause) was taken to hospital
B. We use ~ing clauses to say what somebody (or something) is doing (or was doing) at a particular time:
* Do you know the woman talking to Tom? (the woman is talking to Tom)
* Police investigating the crime are looking for three men. (police are investigating the crime)
* Who were those people waiting outside? (they were waiting)
* I was woken up by a bell ringing. (a bell was ringing)
When you are talking about things (and sometimes people), you can use an ~ing clause to say what something does all the time, not just at a particular time. For example:
* The road joining the two villages is very narrow. (the road joins the two villages)
* 1 live in a pleasant room overlooking the garden. (the room overlooks the garden)
* Can you think of the name of a flower beginning with 'T'? (the name begins with 'T')
C. ~ed clauses have a passive meaning:
* The boy injured in the accident was taken to hospital. (the boy was injured in the accident)
* Some of the people invited to the party can't come. (the people have been invited to the party)
Injured and invited are past participles. Many verbs have past participles that do not end in ~ed (made, bought, stolen etc.):
* Most of the goods made in this factory are exported. (the goods are made.
* The police never found the money stolen in the robbery. (the money was stolen)
You can use left in this way, with the meaning 'not used, still there':
* We've spent nearly all our money. We've only got a little left. For irregular past participles, see Appendix 1.
D. We often use ~ing and ~ed clauses after there is/there was etc.:
* There were some children swimming in the river.
* Is there anybody waiting?
* There was a big red car parked outside the house.
96.1 Make one sentence from two. Use the information in brackets to make an ~ing clause. Sometimes the ~ing clause goes in the middle of the new sentence; sometimes it goes at the end.
1. I was woken up by a bell. (The bell was ringing.)
_I was woken up by a bell ringing._
2. 1 didn't talk much to the man. (The man was sitting next to me on the plane.)
3. The taxi broke down. (The taxi was taking us to the airport.)
4. At the end of the street there is a path. (The path leads to the river.)
5. A new factory has just opened in the town. (The factory employs 500 people.)
6. The company sent me a brochure. (The brochure contained all the information I needed.)
96.2 Make one sentence from two, beginning as shown. Each time make an ~ed clause.
1. A boy was injured in the accident. He was taken to hospital.
_The boy injured in the accident was taken to hospital._.
2. A window was broken in the storm last night. It has now been repaired.
The window --- repaired.
3. A number of suggestions were made at the meeting. Most of them were not very practical.
Most of the suggestions ---.
4. Some paintings were stolen from the museum. They haven't been found yet.
5. A man was arrested by the police. What was his name?
What was the name ---.
96.3 Complete the sentences using one of the following verbs in the correct form: blow call invite live offer read ring sit study work
1. I was woken up by a bell _ringing._
2. A lot of the people _invited_ to the party cannot come.
3. Life must be very unpleasant for people --- near busy airports.
4. A few days after the interview, I received a letter --- me the job.
5. Somebody --- Jack phoned while you were out.
6. There was a tree --- down in the storm last night.
7. When I entered the waiting room it was empty except for a young man --- by
the window a magazine.
8. Ian has got a brother --- in a bank in London and a sister --- economics at university in Manchester.
96.4 Use the words in brackets to make sentences using there is/there was etc.
1. That house is empty. (nobody/live/in it)
_There's nobody living in it._
2. The accident wasn't serious. (nobody/injure)
_There was nobody injured._
3. I can hear footsteps. (somebody/come)
4. The train was full. (a lot of people/travel)
5. We were the only guests at the hotel. (nobody else/stay there)
6. The piece of paper was blank. (nothing/write/on it)
7. There are regular English courses at the college. (a course/begin/next Monday)
UNIT 97 Adjectives ending in ~ing and ~ed (boring/bored etc.)
A. There are many adjectives ending in ~ing and ~ed. For example, boring and bored. Study this example situation:
Jane has been doing the same job for a very long time. Every day she does exactly the same thing again and again. She doesn't enjoy it any more and would like to do something different.
Jane's Job is boring.
Jane is bored (with her job).
Somebody is bored if something (or somebody else ) is boring. Or, if something is boring, it makes you bored. So:
* Jane is bored because her job is boring.
* Jane's job is boring, so Jane is bored. (not 'Jane is boring')
If a person is boring, this means that they make other people bored:
* George always talks about the same things. He's really boring.
B. Compare adjectives ending in ~ing and ~ed:
You can say:
* My job boring.
* My job interesting.
* My job is tiring.
* My job satisfying.
* My job depressing. (etc.)
The ~ing adjective tells you about the job.
You can say:
* I'm bored with my job.
* I'm not interested in my job any more.
* I'm always tired when I finish work.
* I'm not satisfied with my job.
* My job makes me depressed. (etc.)
The ~ed adjective tells you how somebody feels (about the job).
Compare these examples:
* Julia thinks politics is very interesting.
* Did you meet anyone interesting at the party?
* It was quite surprising that he passed the examination. disappointing
* The film was disappointing. I expected it to be much better.
* The news was shocking.
* Julia is very interested in politics. (not 'interesting in politics')
* Are you interested in buying a car? I'm trying to sell mine.
* Everybody was surprised that he passed the examination.
* I was disappointed with the film. I expected it to be much better.
* We were very shocked when we heard the news.
97.1 Complete the sentences for each situation. Use the word given + the ending ~ing or ~ed.
1. The film wasn't as good as we had expected. (disappoint-)
a. The film was _disappointing._
b. We were _disappointed_ with the film.
2. Diana teaches young children. It's a very hard job but she enjoys it. (exhaust-)
a. She enjoys her job but it's often ---.
b. At the end of a day's work, she is often ---.
3. It's been raining all day. I hate this weather. (depress-)
a. This weather is ---.
b. This weather makes me ---.
c. It's silly to get --- because of the weather.
4. Clare is going to the United States next month. She has never been there before. (excit-)
a. It will be an --- experience for her.
b. Going to new places is always ---.
c. She is really --- about going to the United States.
97.2 Choose the correct word.
1. I was _disappointing/disappointed_ with the film. I had expected it to be better.
2. Are you _interesting/interested_ in football?
3. The football match was quite _exciting/excited_ I enjoyed it.
4. It's sometimes _embarrassing/embarrassed_ when you have to ask people for money.
5. Do you easily get _embarrassing/embarrassed?_
6. I had never expected to get the job. I was really _amazing/amazed_ when I was offered it.
7. She has really learnt very fast. She has made _astonishing/astonished_ progress.
8. 1 didn't find the situation funny. I was not _amusing/amused._
9. It was a really _terrifying/terrified_ experience. Afterwards everybody was very _shocking/shocked._
10 Why do you always look so _boring/bored?_ Is your life really so _boring/bored?_
11. He's one of the most _boring/bored_ people I've ever met. He never stops talking and he never says anything _interesting/interested._
97.3 Complete the sentences using one of the words in the box.
amusing/amused confusing/confused exhausting/exhausted annoying/annoyed disgusting/disgusted interesting/interested boring/bored exciting/excited surprising/surprised
1. He works very hard. It's not _surprising_ that he's always tired.
2. I've got nothing to do. I'm ---.
3. The teacher's explanation was ---. Most of the students didn't understand it.
4. The kitchen hadn't been cleaned for ages. It was really ---.
5. I seldom visit art galleries. I'm not particularly --- in art.
6. There's no need to get --- just because I'm a few minutes late.
7. The lecture was ---. I fell asleep.
8. I asked Emily if she wanted to come out with us but she wasn't ---.
9. I've been working very hard all day and now I'm ---.
10. I'm starting a new job next week. I'm quite --- about it.
11. Tom is very good at telling funny stories. He can be very ---.
12. Liz is a very --- person. She knows a lot, she's travelled a lot and she's done lots of different things.
UNIT 98 Adjectives: word order (a nice new house), Adjectives after verbs (You look tired)
A. Sometimes we use two or more adjectives together:
* My brother lives in a nice new house.
* In the kitchen there was 'a beautiful large round wooden table.
Adjectives like new/large/round/wooden are fact adjectives. They give us factual information about age, size, colour etc.
Adjectives like nice/beautiful are opinion adjectives. They tell us what somebody thinks of something or somebody.
Opinion adjectives usually go before fact adjectives.
a nice(opinion) long(fact) summer holiday
an interesting(opinion) young(fact) man
an delicious(opinion) hot(fact) vegetable soup
a beautiful(opinion) large round wooden(fact) table
B. Sometimes we use two or more fact adjectives. Very often (but not always) we put fact adjectives in this order:
1. how big? -> 2. how old? -> 3. what color? -> 4. where from? -> 5. what is it made of? -> NOUN
a tall young man (1 -> 2)
a large wooden table (1 -> 5)
big blue eyes (1 -> 3)
an old Russian song (2 -> 4)
a small black plastic bag (1 -> 3 -> 5)
an old white cotton shirt (2 -> 3 -> 5)
Adjectives of size and length (big/small/tall/short/long etc.) usually go before adjectives of shape and width (round/fat/thin/slim/wide etc.): a large round table a tall thin girl a long narrow street
When there are two colour adjectives, we use and:
a black and white dress
a red, white and green flag
but a long black dress (not 'a long and black dress')
C. We say 'the first two days', 'the next few weeks', 'the last ten minutes' etc.:
* I didn't enjoy the first two days of the course. (not 'the two first days')
* They'll be away for the next few weeks. (not 'the few next weeks')
D. We use adjectives after be/get/become/seem:
* Be careful!
* I'm tired and I'm getting hungry.
* As the film went on, it became more and more boring.
* Your friend seems very nice.
We also use adjectives to say how somebody/something looks, feels, sounds, tastes or smells:
* You look tired./I feel tired./She sounds tired.
* The dinner smells good.
* This tea tastes a bit strange.
But to say how somebody does something you must use an adverb (see Units 99-100):
* Drive carefully! (not 'Drive careful')
* Susan plays the piano very well. (not 'plays...very good')
98.1 Put the adjectives in brackets in the correct position.
1. a beautiful table (wooden/round) _a beautiful round wooden table_.
2. an unusual ring (gold) ---.
3. a new pullover (nice) ---.
4. a new pullover (green) ---.
5. an old house (beautiful) ---.
6. black gloves (leather) ---.
7. an American film (old) ---.
8. a long face (thin) ---.
9. big clouds (black) ---.
10. a sunny day (lovely) ---.
11. a wide avenue (long) ---.
12. a metal box (black/small) ---.
13. a big cat (fat/black) ---.
14. a little village (old/lovely) ---.
15. long hair (black/beautiful) ---.
16. an old painting (interesting/French) ---.
17. an enormous umbrella (red/yellow) ---.
98.2 Write the following in another way using the first .../the next ..../the last ...
1. the first day and the second day of the course _the first two days of the course_
2. next week and the week after _the next two weeks_
3. yesterday and the day before yesterday ---
4. the first week and the second week of September ---
5. tomorrow and a few days after that ---
6. questions 1, 2 and 3 of the examination ---
7. next year and the year after ---
8. the last day of our holiday and the two days before that ---
98.3 Complete each sentence with a verb (in the correct form) and an adjective from the boxes.
verb: feel smell look seem smell sound taste
adjective: awful fine nice interesting upset wet
1. Ann _seemed upset_ this morning. Do you know what was wrong?
2. I can't eat this. I've just tried it and it ---.
3. I wasn't very well yesterday but I --- today.
4. What beautiful flowers! They --- too.
5. You --- Have you been out in the rain?
6. Jim was telling me about his new job. It --- quite ---, much better than his old job.
98.4 Choose the correct word.
1. This tea tastes a bit _strange._ (strange/strangely)
2. I always feel --- when the sun is shining. (happy/happily)
3. The children were playing --- in the garden. (happy/happily)
4. The man became --- when the manager of the restaurant asked him to leave. (violent/violently)
5. You look --- Are you all right? (terrible/terribly)
6. There s no point in doing a job if you don t do it ---. (proper/properly)
UNIT 99 Adjectives and adverbs (1) (quick/quickly)
A. Look at these examples:
* Our holiday was too short - the time went very quickly.
* The driver of the car was seriously injured in the accident.
Quickly and seriously are adverbs. Many adverbs are made from an adjective + -1y:
adjective: quick serious careful quiet heavy bad
adverb: quickly seriously carefully quietly heavily badly
For spelling, see Appendix 6.
Not all words ending in -ly are adverbs. Some adjectives end in -ly too, for example:
friendly lively elderly lonely silly lovely
B. Adjective or adverb?
#1 Adjectives (quick/careful etc.) tell us about a noun. We use adjectives before nouns and after some verbs, especially be:
* Tom is a careful driver. (not 'a carefully driver')
* We didn't go out because of the heavy rain.
* Please be quiet.
* I was disappointed that my exam results were so bad.
We also use adjectives after the verbs look/feel/sound etc. (see Unit 98D):
* Why do you always look so serious?
#2 Adverbs (quickly/carefully etc.) tell us about a verb. An adverb tells us how somebody does something or how something happens:
* Tom drove carefully along the narrow road. (not 'drove careful')
* We didn't go out because it was raining heavily. (not 'raining heavy')
* Please speak quietly. (not 'speak quiet')
* I was disappointed that I did so badly in the exam. (not 'did so bad')
Why do you never take me seriously?
* She speaks perfect English.(adjective + noun)
* She speaks English perfectly.(verb + object + adverb)
Compare these sentences with look:
* Tom looked sad when I saw him. (= he seemed sad, his expression was sad)
* Tom looked at me sadly. (= he looked at me in a sad way)
C. We also use adverbs before adjectives and other adverbs. For example:
reasonably cheap (adverb + adjective)
terribly sorry (adverb + adjective)
incredibly quickly (adverb + adverb)
* It's a reasonably cheap restaurant and the food is extremely good.
* Oh, I'm terribly sorry. I didn't mean to push you. (not 'terrible sorry')
* Maria learns languages incredibly quickly.
* The examination was surprisingly easy.
You can also use an adverb before a past participle (injured/organised/written etc.)
* Two people were seriously injured in the accident. (not 'serious injured')
* The meeting was very badly organised.
99.1 Complete the sentences with adverbs. The first letter(s) of each adverb are given.
1. We didn't go out because it was raining _heavily._
2. Our team lost the game because we played very ba---.
3. I had little difficulty finding a place to live. I found a flat quite ea---.
4. We had to wait for a long time but we didn't complain. We waited pa---.
5. Nobody knew George was coming to see us. He arrived unex---.
6. Mike keeps fit by playing tennis reg---.
99.2 Put in the right word.
1. The driver of the car was _seriously_ injured. (serious/seriously)
2. The driver of the car had serious_ injuries. (serious/seriously)
3. I think you behaved very ---. (selfish/selfishly)
4. Rose is --- I upset about losing her job. (terrible/terribly)
5. There was a --- change in the weather. (sudden/suddenly)
6. Everybody at the party was --- dressed. (colourful/colourfully)
7. Linda likes wearing --- clothes. (colourful/colourfully)
8. She fell and hurt herself quite ---.(bad/badly)
9. He says he didn't do well at school because he was --- taught. (bad/badly)
10. Don't go up that ladder. It doesn't look ---. (safe/safely)
11. He looked at me --- when I interrupted him. (angry/angrily)
99.3 Complete each sentence using a word from the list. Sometimes you need the adjective (careful etc.) and sometimes the adverb (carefully etc.).
careful(ly) complete(ly) continuous(ly) financial(ly) fluent(ly) happy/happily nervous(ly) perfect(ly) quick(ly) special(1y)
1. Our holiday was too short. The time passed very _quickly._
2. Tom doesn't take risks when he's driving. He's always ---.
3. Sue works --- She never seems to stop.
4. Alice and Stan are very --- married.
5. Monica's English is very --- although she makes quite a lot of mistakes.
6. I cooked this meal --- for you, so I hope you like it.
7. Everything was very quiet. There was --- silence.
8. I tried on the shoes and they fitted me ---.
9. Do you usually feel --- before examinations?
10. I'd like to buy a car but it's --- impossible for me at the moment.
99.4 Choose two words (one from each box) to complete each sentence.
absolutely reasonably unusually badly seriously unnecessarily completely slightly
cheap enormous planned badly changed ill quiet damaged long
1. I thought the restaurant would be expensive but it was _reasonably cheap._
2. George's mother is --- in hospital.
3. What a big house! It's ---.
4. It wasn't a serious accident. The car was only ---.
5. The children are normally very lively but they're --- today.
6, When I returned home after 20 years, everything had ---.
7. The film was --- It could have been much shorter.
8. A lot went wrong during our holiday because it was ---.
UNIT 100 Adjectives and adverbs (2) (well/fast/late, hard/hardly)
Good is an adjective. The adverb is well:
* Your English is good. but You speak English well.
* Susan is a good pianist. but Susan plays the piano well.
We use well (not 'good') with past participles (dressed/known etc.):
well-dressed well-known well-educated well-paid
But well is also an adjective with the meaning 'in good health':
* 'How are you today?', 'I'm very well, thanks.' (not 'I'm very good')
These words are both adjectives and adverbs:
* Jack is a very fast runner.
* Ann is a hard worker.
* The train was late.
* Jack can run very fast.
* Ann works hard. (not 'works hardly')
* I got up late this morning.
Lately = 'recently'
* Have you seen Tom lately?
Hardly = very little, almost not. Study these examples:
* Sarah was rather unfriendly to me at the party. She hardly spoke to me. (= she spoke to me very little, almost not at all)
* George and Hilda want to get married but they've only known each other for a few
days. I don't think they should get married yet. They hardly know each other. (= they know each other very little)
Hard and hardly are completely different. Compare:
* He tried hard to find a job but he had no luck. (= he tried a lot, with a lot of effort)
* I'm not surprised he didn't find a job. He hardly tried to find one. (= he tried very little)
We often use hardly + any/anybody/anyone/anything/anywhere:
* A: How much money have you got?
B: Hardly any. (= very little, almost none)
* I'll have to go shopping. We've got hardly any food.
* The exam results were very bad. Hardly anybody in our class passed. (= very few students passed, almost nobody passed)
* She ate hardly anything. She wasn't feeling hungry. (= she ate very little, almost nothing) Note the position of hardly. You can say:
* She ate hardly anything. or She hardly ate anything.
* We've got hardly any food. or We've hardly got any food. We often use can/could + hardly. I can hardly do something = it's almost impossible for me to do it:
* Your writing is terrible. I can hardly read it. (= it is almost impossible for me to read it)
* My leg was hurting me. I could hardly walk. Hardly ever = almost never
* I'm nearly always at home in the evenings. I hardly ever go out.
100.1 Put in good or well.
1. I play tennis but I'm not very _good._
2. Your exam results were very ---.
3. You did very --- in your exams.
4. The weather was very --- while we-were on holiday.
5. 1 didn't sleep very --- last night.
6. How are you? Are you ---?
7. George speaks German very ---.
8. George's German is very ---.
9. Our new business is going very --- at the moment.
10. I like your jacket. It looks --- on you.
11. I've met her a few times but I don't know her very ---.
100.2 Complete these sentences using well + one of the following words: balanced behaved done dressed informed kept known paid
1. The children were very good. They were _well-behaved._
2. I'm surprised you haven't heard of her. She is quite ---.
3. Our neighbours' garden is neat and tidy. It is very ---.
4. You should eat different types of food. Your diet should be ---.
5. Ann knows a lot about many things. She is quite ---.
6. His clothes are always smart. He is always ---.
7. Jill has a lot of responsibility in her job but she isn't very ---.
8. Congratulations on passing your examinations ---!
100.3 Are the underlined words right or wrong? Correct the ones that are wrong.
1. I'm tired because I've been working _hard._ _RIGHT_
2. I tried _hard_ to remember her name but I couldn't.
3. This coat is practically unused. I've _hardly_ worn it.
4. She's a good tennis player. She hits the ball _hardly._
5. Don't walk so _fast!_ I can't keep up with you.
6. Why are you walking so _slow?_ Are you tired?
100.4 Write sentences with hardly. Use one of the following verbs (in the correct form):
change hear know recognise say sleep speak
1. George and Hilda have only met once before. They _hardly know_ each other.
2. You're speaking very quietly. I can --- you.
3. I'm very tired this morning. I --- last night.
4. We were so shocked when we heard the news, we could ---.
5. Kate was very quiet this evening. She --- a word.
6. You look the same now as you looked 15 years ago. You've ---.
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