UNIT 28. Must and can't 3 page
* If I had seen you, I would have said hello. (not 'If I would have seen you')
Note that 'd can be would or had:
* If I'd seen you, (I'd seen = I had seen)
I'd have said hello. (I'd have said = I would have said)
C. We use had (done) in the same way after wish. I wish something had happened = I am sorry that it didn't happen:
* I wish I'd known that Gary was ill. I would have gone to see him. (but I didn't know)
* I feel sick. I wish I hadn't eaten so much cake. (I ate too much cake)
* Do you wish you had studied science instead of languages? (you didn't study science)
* The weather was cold while we were away. I wish it had been warmer.
Do not use would have... after wish in these sentences:
* I wish it had been warmer. (not 'I wish it would have been')
D. Compare would (do) and would have (done):
* If I had gone to the party last night, I would be tired now. (I am not tired now--present)
If I had gone to the party last night, I would have met lots of people. (I didn't meet lots of people--past)
Compare would have, could have and might have:
* If the weather hadn't been so bad, we would have gone out.
* If the weather hadn't been so bad, we could have gone out. (= we would have been able to go out)
* If the weather hadn't been so bad, we might have gone out. (=perhaps we would have gone out)
39.1 Put the verb into the correct form.
1. I didn't know you were in hospital. If I'd known (I/know), I would have gone (I/go) to visit you.
2. Ken got to the station in time to catch his train. If, --- (he/miss) it --- (he/be) late for his interview.
3. It's good that you reminded me about Ann's birthday. --- (I/forget)if --- (you/not/remind) me.
4. Unfortunately, I didn't have my address book with me when I was in New York. If --- (I/have) your address, --- (I/send) you a postcard.
5. A: How was your holiday? Did you have a nice time?
B: It was OK, but --- (we/enjoy) it more if --- (the weather/be) better.
6. I took a taxi to the hotel but the traffic was very bad. --- (it/be) quicker if --- (I/walk).
7. I'm not tired. If --- (I/be) tired, I'd go home now.
8. I wasn't tired last night. If --- (I/be) tired, I would have gone home earlier.
39.2 Write a sentence with if for each situation.
1. I wasn't hungry, so I didn't eat anything.
_If I'd been hungry, I would have eaten something._
2. The accident happened because the driver in front stopped so suddenly.
If the driver in front ---
3. I didn't know that George had to get up early, so I didn't wake him up.
if I ---
4. I was able to buy the car only because Jim tent me the money.
5. Margaret wasn't injured in the crash because she was wearing a seat belt.
6. You didn't have any breakfast - that's why you're hungry now.
7. I didn't get a taxi because I didn't have any money on me.
39.3 Imagine that you are in these situations. For each situation, write a sentence with I wish ...
1. You've eaten too much and now you feel sick.
You say: _I wish I hadn't eaten so much._
2. There was a job advertised in the newspaper. You decided not to apply for it. Now you think that your decision was wrong.
You say: I wish I ---
3. When you were younger, you didn't learn to play a musical instrument. Now you regret this.
You say: ---
4. You've painted the gate red. Now you think that it doesn't look very nice.
You say: ---
5. You are walking in the country. You would like to take some photographs but you didn't bring your camera.
You say: ---
6. You have some unexpected guests. They didn't tell you they were coming. You are very busy and you are not prepared for them.
You say (to yourself): ---
UNIT 40. Would I wish ... would
A. We use would ('d) when we imagine a situation or action:
* It would be nice to have a holiday but we can't afford it.
* I'm not going to bed yet. I'm not tired and I wouldn't sleep.
We use would have (done) when we imagine situations or actions in the past:
* They helped me a lot. I don't know what I would have done without their help.
* I didn't go to bed. I wasn't tired, so I wouldn't have slept.
For would in sentences with if see Units 37-39.
B. Compare will ('11) and would ('d):
* I'll stay a bit longer. I've got plenty of time.
* I'd stay a bit longer but I really have to go now. (so I can't stay longer)
Sometimes would/wouldn't is the past of will/won't. Compare:
present -> past
Tom: I'll phone you on Sunday. -> Tom said he'd phone me on Sunday.
ANN: I promise I won't be late. -> Ann promised that she wouldn't be late.
Liz: Damn! The car won't start. -> Liz was angry because the car wouldn't start.
C. I wish ... would...
Study this example situation:
It is raining. Jill wants to go out, but not in the rain. She says:
I wish it would stop raining.
This means that Jill is complaining about the rain and wants it to stop.
We use I wish ... would... when we want something to happen or when we want somebody to do something. The speaker is not happy with the present situation.
* The phone has been ringing for five minutes. I wish somebody would answer it.
* I wish you would do something instead of just sitting and doing nothing.
You can use I wish ... wouldn't ... to complain about things people do repeatedly:
* I wish you wouldn't keep interrupting me.
We use I wish ... would ... for actions and changes, not situations. Compare:
* I wish Sarah would come. (= I want her to come)
but * I wish Sarah were (or was) here now. (not 'I wish Sarah would be...')
* I wish somebody would buy me a car.
but * I wish I had a car. (not 'I wish I would have...')
For 'I wish ... were/had (etc.)' see Units 38B and 39C.
D. You can also use would when you talk about things that happened regularly in the past:
* When we were children, we lived by the sea. In summer, if the weather was fine, we would all get up early and go for a swim. (= we did this regularly)
* Whenever Arthur was angry, he would walk out of the room.
With this meaning, would is similar to used to (see Unit 18):
* Whenever Arthur was angry, he used to walk out of the room.
40.1 Complete the sentences using would + one of the following verbs in the correct form:
be do enjoy enjoy phone stop
1. They helped me a lot. I don't know what I would have done without their help.
2. You should go and see the film. You --- it.
3. It's a pity you couldn't come to the party last night. You --- it.
4. I --- you last night but I didn't have your number.
5. Why don't you go and see Clare? She --- very pleased to see you.
6. I was in a hurry when I saw you. Otherwise I --- to talk.
40.2 Write sentences using promised.
1. I wonder why she's late. She promised she wouldn't be late.
2. I wonder why Tom hasn't written to me. He promised ---
3. I'm surprised they didn't wait for us. They ---
4. Why did you tell Jill what I said? You ---
40.3 What do you say in these situations? Write sentences with I wish ... would ...
1. It's raining. You want to go out, but not in the rain.
You say: I wish it would stop raining.
2. You're waiting for John. He's late and you're getting impatient.
You say (to yourself): I wish ---
3. You can hear a baby crying and you're trying to study.
You say: ---
4. You're looking for a job - so far without success. Nobody will give you a job.
You say: I wish somebody ---
5. Brian has been wearing the same clothes for years. You think he needs some new clothes.
You say (to Brian): ---
For the following situations, write sentences with I wish ... wouldn't ....
6. Your friend drives very fast. You don't like this.
You say (to your friend): I wish you ---
7. Jack always leaves the door open. This annoys you.
You say (to Jack): ---
8. A lot of people drop litter in the street. You don't like this.
You say: I wish people ---
40.4 Are these sentences right or wrong? Correct the ones that are wrong.
1. I wish Sarah would be here now.
2. I wish you would listen to me.
3. I wish I would have more money.
4. I wish it wouldn't be so cold today.
5. I wish the weather would change.
6. I wish you wouldn't complain all the time.
7. I wish everything wouldn't be so expensive.
40.5 These sentences are about things that often happened in the past. Complete the sentences using
would + one of these verbs: forget shake share walk
1. Whenever Arthur was angry, he would walk out of the room.
2. I used to live next to a railway line. Whenever a train went past, the house ---
3. You could never rely on George. It didn't matter how many times you reminded him to do something, he --- always ---
4. Brenda was always very generous. She didn't have much but she --- what she had with everyone else.
UNIT 41. passive (1) (is done/was done)
A. Study this example:
This house was built in 1930.
'Was built' is passive. Compare active and passive:
Somebody built this house (object) in 1930. (active)
This house (subject) was built in 1930. (passive)
We use an active verb to say what the subject does:
* My grandfather was a builder. He built this house in 1930.
* It's a big company. It employs two hundred people.
We use a passive verb to say what happens to the subject:
* This house is quite old. It was built in 1930.
* Two hundred people are employed by the company.
B. When we use the passive, who or what causes the action is often unknown or unimportant:
* A lot of money was stolen in the robbery. (somebody stole it but we don't know who)
* Is this room cleaned every day? (does somebody clean it?--it's not important who)
If we want to say who does or what causes the action, we use by...
* This house was built by my grandfather.
* Two hundred people are employed by the company.
C. The passive is be (is/was/have been etc.) + the past participle (done/cleaned/seen etc.):
(be) done (be) cleaned (be) seen (be) damaged (be) built etc.
For irregular past participles (done/known/seen etc.), see Appendix 1.
Study the active and passive forms of the present simple and past simple:
active: clean(s)/see(s) etc.
Somebody cleans this every day.
passive: am/is/are cleaned/seen etc.
This room is cleaned every day.
* Many accidents are caused by careless driving.
* I'm not often invited to parties.
* How is this word pronounced?
active: cleaned/saw etc.
Somebody cleaned this room yesterday.
passive: was/were cleaned/seen etc.
This room was cleaned yesterday.
* We were woken up by a loud noise during the night.
* 'Did you go to the party?' 'No, I wasn't invited.'
* How much money was stolen?
41.1 Complete the sentences using one of these verbs in the correct form:
cause damage hold include invite make overtake show translate write
1. Many accidents _are caused_ by dangerous driving.
2. Cheese --- from milk.
3. The roof of the building --- in a storm a few days ago.
4. There's no need to leave a tip. Service --- in the bill.
5. You --- to the wedding. Why didn't you go?
6. A cinema is a place where films ---
7. In the United States, elections for President --- every four years.
8. Originally the book --- in Spanish and a few years ago it
9. We were driving along quite fast but we --- by lots of other cars.
41.2 Write questions using the passive. Some are present and some are past.
1. Ask about the telephone. (when/invent?)
_When was the telephone invented?_
2. Ask about glass. (how/make?) How ---
3. Ask about Australia. (when/discover?)
4. Ask about silver. (what/use for?)
5. Ask about television. (when/invent?)
41.3 Put the verb into the correct form, present simple or past simple, active or passive.
1. It's a big factory. Five hundred people _are employed_ (employ) there.
2. Water --- (cover) most of the Earth's surface.
3. Most of the Earth's surface --- (cover) by water.
4. The park gates --- (lock) at 6.30 p.m. every evening.
5. The letter --- (post) a week ago and it --- (arrive) yesterday.
6. The boat --- (sink) quickly but fortunately everybody --- (rescue).
7. Ron's parents --- (die) when he was very young. He and his sister --- (bring) up by their grandparents.
8. I was born in London but I --- (grow) up in the north of England.
9. While I was on holiday, my camera --- (steal) from my hotel room.
10. While I was on holiday, my camera --- (disappear) from my hotel room.
11. Why --- (Sue/resign) from her job? Didn't she enjoy it?
12. Why --- (Bill/sack) from his job? What did he do wrong?
13. The company is not independent. It --- (own) by a much larger company.
14. I saw an accident last night. Somebody --- (call) an ambulance but nobody --- (injure) so the ambulance --- (not/need).
15. Where --- (these photographs/take)? In London? --- (you/take) them?
41.4 Rewrite these sentences. Instead of using 'somebody/they/people' etc. write a passive sentence.
1. Somebody cleans the room every day. _The room is cleaned every day._
2. They cancelled all flights because of fog. All ---
3. People don't use this road very often. ---
4. Somebody accused me of stealing money. I ---
5. How do people learn languages? How ---
6. People advised us not to go out alone. ---
UNIT 42. Passive (2) (be/been/being done) Study the following active and passive forms:
active: (to) do/clean/see etc. Somebody will clean the room later.
passive: (to) be done/cleaned/seen etc. The room will be clean later.
* The situation is serious. Something must be done before it's too late.
* A mystery is something that can't be explained.
* The music was very loud and could be heard from a long way away.
* A new supermarket is going to be built next year.
* Please go away. I want to be left alone.
B. Perfect infinitive
active: have done/cleaned/seen etc. Somebody should have cleaned the room.
passive: have been done/cleaned/seen etc. The room should have been cleaned.
* I haven't received the letter yet. It might have been sent to the wrong address.
* If you hadn't left the car unlocked, it wouldn't have been stolen.
* There were some problems at first but they seem to have been solved.
C. Present perfect
active: have/has (done) The room looks nice. Somebody has cleaned it.
passive: have/has been (done) The room looks nice. It has been clean.
* Have you heard the news? The President has been shot!
* Have you ever been bitten by a dog?
* 'Are you going to the party?' 'No, I haven't been invited.'
active: had(done) The room looked nice. Somebody had clean it.
passive: had been (done) The room looked nice. It had been clean.
* The vegetables didn't taste very good. They had been cooked for too long.
* The car was three years old but hadn't been used very much.
D. Present continuous
active: am/is/are (do)ing Somebody is cleaning the room at the moment.
passive: am/is/are being (done) The room is being cleaned at the moment.
* There's somebody walking behind us. I think we are being followed.
* (in a shop) 'Can I help you, madam?' 'No, thank you. I'm being served.'
active: was/were (do)ing Somebody was cleaning the room when I arrived.
passive: was/were being (done) The room was being cleaned when I arrived.
* There was somebody walking behind us. We were being followed.
42.1 What do these words mean? Use it can ... or it can't... . Use a dictionary if necessary.
If something is
1. washable, _it can be washed._
2. unbreakable, it ---
3. edible, it ---
4. unusable, ---
5. invisible, ---
6. portable, ---
42.2 Complete these sentences with one of the following verbs (in the correct form):
carry cause do make repair send spend wake up
Sometimes you need have ('might have', 'could have' etc.).
1. The situation is serious. Something must be done before it's too late.
2. I haven't received the letter. It might have been sent to the wrong address.
3. A decision will not --- until the next meeting.
4. I told the hotel receptionist that I wanted to --- at 6.30 the next morning.
5. Do you think that less money should --- on armaments?
6. This road is in very bad condition. It should --- a long time ago.
7. The injured man couldn't walk and had to ---
8. It's not certain how the fire started but it might --- by an electrical fault.
42.3 Rewrite these sentences. Instead of using 'somebody' or 'they', write a passive sentence.
1. Somebody has cleaned the room. _The room has been cleaned._
2. They have postponed the concert. The ---
3. Somebody is using the computer at the moment. The computer ---
4. I didn't realise that somebody was recording our conversation. I didn't realise that ---
5. When we got to the stadium we found that they had cancelled the game. When we got to the stadium, we found that ---
6. They are building a new ring road round the city. ---
7. They have built a new hospital near the airport. ---
42.4 Make sentences from the words in brackets. Sometimes the verb is active, sometimes passive. (This exercise also includes the past simple--see Unit 41 C.)
1. There's somebody behind us. (I think/we/follow) _I think we're being followed._
2. This room looks different. (you/paint?) _Have you painted it?_
3. My car has disappeared. (it/steal!) It ---
4. My umbrella has disappeared. (somebody/take) Somebody ---
5. Tom gets a higher salary now. (he/promote) ---
6. Ann can't use her office at the moment. (it/redecorate) ---
7. The photocopier broke down yesterday, but now it's OK. (it/work/again; it/repair)
8. The police have found the people they were looking for. (two people/arrest/last night)
9. A tree was lying across the road. (it/blow down/in the storm)
10. The man next door disappeared six months ago. (nobody/see/since then)
11. I was mugged on my way home a few nights ago. (you/ever/mug?)
UNIT 43. Passive (3)
A. I was born ...
We say: I was born ... (not 'I am born'):
* I was born in Chicago.
* Where were you born? (not 'where are you born')
but present simple
* How many babies are born everyday?
B. Some verbs can have two objects. For example, give:
* We gave _the police_(object 1) _the information._(object 2) (= We gave the information to the police.)
So it is possible to make two passive sentences:
* The police were given the information. or The information was given to the police.
Other verbs which can have two objects are: ask offer pay show teach tell
When we use these verbs in the passive, most often we begin with the person:
* I was offered the job but I refused it. (= they offered me the job)
* You will be given plenty of time to decide. (= we will give you plenty of time)
* Have you been shown the new machine? (= has anybody shown you ...?)
* The men were paid L200 to do the work. (= somebody paid the men L200)
C. I don't like being ...
The passive of doing/seeing etc. is being done/being seen etc. Compare:
active: I don't like people telling me what to do.
passive: I don5t like being told what to do.
* I remember being given a toy drum on my fifth birthday. (= I remember somebody giving me a toy drum...)
* Mr. Miller hates being kept waiting. (= he hates people keeping him waiting)
* We managed to climb over the wall without being seen. (= ... without anybody seeing us)
Sometimes you can use get instead of be in the passive:
* There was a fight at the party but nobody got hurt. (= nobody was hurt)
* I don't often get invited to parties. (= I'm not often invited)
* I'm surprised Ann didn't get offered the lob. (... Ann wasn't offered the job)
You can use get to say that something happens to somebody or something, especially if this is unplanned or unexpected:
* Our dog got run over by a car.
You can use get only when things happen or change. For example, you cannot use get in these sentences:
* Jill is liked by everybody. (not 'gets liked' - this is not a 'happening')
* He was a mystery man. Nothing was known about him. (not 'got known')
We use get mainly in informal spoken English. You can use be in all situations.
We also use get in the following expressions (which are not passive in meaning):
get married get divorced get dressed (= put on your clothes) get changed (= change your clothes)
43.1 When were they born? Choose five of these people and write a sentence for each. (Two of them were born in the same year.)
Beethoven Galileo Elvis Presley 1452 1869 1929
Agatha Christie Mahatma Gandhi Leonardo da Vinci 1564 1891 1935
Walt Disney Martin Luther King William Shakespeare 1770 1901
1. _Walt Disney was born in 1901._
7. And you? I ---
43.2 Write these sentences in another way, beginning in the way shown.
1. They didn't give me the money. I _wasn't given the money._
2. They asked me some difficult questions at the interview. I ---
3. Janet's colleagues gave her a present when she retired. Janet ---
4. Nobody told me that George was ill. I wasn't ---
5. How much will they pay you? How much will you ---
6. I think they should have offered Tom the job. I think Tom ---
7. Has anybody shown you what to do? Have you ---
43.3 Complete the sentences using being + one of these verbs:
ask attack give invite keep pay
1. Mr Miller doesn't like _being kept_ waiting.
2. They went to the party without ---.
3. Most people like --- presents.
4. It's a dangerous city. People won't go out after dark because they are afraid of ---.
5. I don't like --- stupid questions.
6. Few people are prepared to work without ---.
43.4 Complete the sentences using get/got + one of these verbs (in the correct form): ask break damage hurt pay steal sting stop use
1. There was a fight at the party but nobody got hurt.
2. Ted --- by a bee while he was sitting in the garden.
3. How did that window ---?
4. These tennis courts don't --- very often, Not many people want to play.
5. I used to have a bicycle but it ---.
6. Last night I --- by the police as I was driving home.
7. How much did you --- last month?
8. Please pack these things very carefully. I don't want them to ---.
9. People often want to know what my Job is. I often --- that question.
UNIT 44. It is said that... He is said to... (be) supposed to...
A. Study this example situation:
Henry is very old. Nobody knows exactly how old he is, but:
It is said that he is 108 years old. or He is said to be 108 years old.
Both these sentences mean: 'People say that he is 108 years old.'
You can use these structures with a number of other verbs, especially:
thought believed considered reported known expected alleged understood
Compare the two structures:
* Cathy works very hard.
It is said that she works 16 hours a day. or She is said to work 16 hours a day.
* The police are looking for a missing boy.
It is believed that the boy is wearing a or white pullover and blue jeans. The boy is believed to be wearing a white pullover and blue jeans.
* The strike started three weeks ago.
It is expected that it will end soon. or The strike is expected to end soon
* A friend of mine has been arrested.
It is alleged that he kicked a policeman. or He is alleged to have kicked a policeman.
* Those two houses belong to the same family.
It is said that there is a secret tunnel between them. There is said to be a secret tunnel between them.
These structures are often used in news reports. For example, in a report about an accident:
* It is reported that two people were injured in the explosion. or Two people are reported to have been injured in the explosion.
B. (Be) supposed to
Sometimes it is supposed to ... = it is said to...
* Let's go and see that film. It's supposed to be very good. (= it is said to be very good)
* 'Why was he arrested?' 'He's supposed to have kicked a policeman.' (= he is said to have kicked a policeman)
But sometimes supposed to has a different meaning. 'Something is supposed to happen' = it is planned, arranged or expected. Often this is different from what really happens:
* I'd better hurry. It's nearly 8 o'clock and I'm supposed to be meeting Ann at 8.15. (= I have arranged to meet Ann, I said I would meet her)
* The train was supposed to arrive at 11.30 but it was an hour late. (= the train was
expected to arrive at 11.30 according to the timetable)
* You were supposed to clean the windows. Why didn't you do it?
'You're not supposed to do something' = it is not allowed or advisable for you to do it:
* You're not supposed to park your car here. It's private parking only.
* Mr. Bond is much better after his illness but he's still not supposed to do any heavy work. (= his doctors have advised him not to ...)
44.1 Write these sentences in another way, beginning as shown. Use the underlined word in your sentence.
1. It is _expected_ that the strike will end soon. The strike _is expected to end soon._
2. It is _expected_ that the weather will be good tomorrow. The weather is ---
3. It is _believed_ that the thieves got in through the kitchen window. The thieves ---
4. It is _reported_ that many people are homeless after the floods. Many people ---
5. It is _thought_ that the prisoner escaped by climbing over a wall. The prisoner ---
6. It is _alleged_ that the man drove through the town at 90 miles an hour. The man is ---
7. It is _reported_ that the building has been badly damaged by fire. The building ---
8. a: It is _said_ that the company is losing a lot of money. The company ---
b: It is _believed_ that the company lost a lot of money last year. The company ---
c: It is _expected_ that the company will lose money this year. The company ---
44.2 People say a lot of things about Arthur. For example:
1 Arthur cats spiders.
2 He is very rich.
3. (He writes poetry.
4. (He has 12 children.)
5. (He robbed a bank a long time ago.
Nobody knows for sure whether these things are true or not. Write sentences about Arthur using (be) supposed to.
1. Arthur is supposed to eat spiders.
2. He ---
44.3 Now you have to use (be) supposed to with its other meaning. In each example what happens is different from what is supposed to happen. Use (be) supposed to + one of these verbs:
arrive be block come park phone start
Some of the sentences are negative (like the first example).
1. You_'re not suppose to park_ here. It's private parking only.
2. The train _was supposed to arrive_ at 11.30, but it was an hour late.
3. What are the children doing at home? They --- at school at this time.
4. We --- work at 8.15, but we rarely do anything before 8.30.
5. This door is a fire exit. You --- it.
6. Oh dear! I --- Ann but I completely forgot.
7. They arrived very early--at 2 o'clock. They --- until 3.30.
UNIT 45. Have something done
A. Study this example situation:
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