CATEGORIES:

# CONDITIONAL SENTENCES

 Always remember If clause Result clause Examples True in the present/Future (General Truth) Simple Present Simple Present/Simple Future (a) If she has enough time, she goes to the library once every week. (b) If she has enough time, she will go to the library once every week. Untrue in the present/future (Unlikely to happen) Simple Past Would+ Simple Form (c) If she had enough time, she would go to the library once every week. (However, the truth is that she does not have enough time, so she will not go to the library) Untrue in the past (Impossible situation in past) Past Perfect Would have+ past participle (d) If she had had enough time, she would have gone to the library once every week. (However, the truth is that she didn´t have enough time, so she didn´t go anywhere.)

FIRST CONDITIONAL(TRUE IN THE PRESENT OR FUTURE)

(e) If I don’t eat breakfast, I always get hungry during class.

(f) Water freezes (will freeze) if the temperature goes below 32° F/0°C.

(g) If I don’t eat breakfast tomorrow morning, I will get hungry during class.

(h) If the weather is nice tomorrow, we will go on a picnic.

In (e): The simple present is used in the result clause to express a habitual activity or situation.

In (f): Either the simple present or the simple future is used in the result clause to express an established, predictable fact.

In (g) and (h): The simple future is used in the result clause when the sentence concerns a particular activity or situation in the future.

EXERCISE 1 :Connect the phrases to make sentences.

1. If you hide behind the tree,

2. If you don’t hurry,

3. If you read more books,

4. If she doesn’t eat,

5. If they don’t do their homework,

a) you’ll know more words.

b) he’ll see you.

c) we’ll be late.

d) their teacher will be angry.

e) she’ll be hungry.

EXERCISE 2:Complete the conditional sentences.

1) If you _________________________ (not/behave), you __________________________ (get) a bad mark.

2) If she __________________________ (wear) a raincoat, she _________________________ (not/get) wet.

3) I ___________________________ (not /talk) to you if you ________________________ (not/ keep) my secret.

4) If he ___________________________ (leave) now, I __________________________ (never/ talk) to him again.

5) If your students _____________________ (work) hard, their results ___________________ (be) a lot better.

6) If you ____________________________ (wait) a minute, she ________________________ (be) here with Jack.

SECOND CONDITIONAL(UNTRUE (CONTRARY TO FACT) IN THE PRESENT/FUTURE)

(i) If I taught this class, I wouldn’t give tests. In (i): In truth, I don’t teach this class.

(j) If he were here right now, he would help us. In (j): In truth, he is not here right now.

(k) If I were you, I would accept their invitation. In (k): In truth, I am not you.

Note: Were is used for both singular and plural subjects. Was (with I, he, she, it) is sometimes used in very information speech but is not generally consider grammatically acceptable.

EXERCISE 3:Complete the sentences with the verbs in parentheses.

1. If I have enough apples, I (bake) _____will bake______ an apple pie this afternoon.

2. If I had enough apples, I (bake) _______________________ an apple pie this afternoon.

3. I will fix your bicycle if (have) _______________________ a screwdriver of the proper size.

4. I would fix your bicycle if I (have) _______________________ a screwdriver of the proper size.

5. I (make) ___________________ a tomato salad for the picnic tomorrow if the tomatoes in my garden are ripe.

6. I (make) ___________________ a tomato salad for the picnic tomorrow if the tomatoes in my garden are ripe.

7. Jack would shave today if he (have) _______________________ a sharp razor.

8. Jack will shave today if he (have) _______________________ a sharp razor.

9. Sally always answers the phone if she (be) _______________________ in her office.

10. Sally would answer the phone if she (be) _______________________ in her office right now.

11. I (not be) _________________ a student in this class if English (be) __________________ my native language.

EXERCISE 4:Write the correct form of the verbs in brackets.

1. If I were you, I _____________________________________ (not wear) those old jeans.

2. Terence _____________________________________ (win) the championship if he trained harder.

3. If he _____________________________________ (be) taller, he could be a basketball player.

4. If everybody _____________________________________ (protest), they would stop killing whales.

5. The countryside _____________________________________ (be) more beautiful if people didn’t set fire to the forests every year.

6. If you __________________________ (stop) smoking, you _______________________ (feel) much better.

7. If the temperature ____________________ (drop) a bit more, it ______________________ (snow), but I don’t think it will.

8. I _____________________ (read) the book if it ____________________ (be) interesting, but it’s so boring.

9. If my boyfriend __________________ (treat) me like that, I ____________________ (break up) with him.

EXERCISE 5:Rewrite the sentences using the second conditional.

1. I don’t have his phone number. I can´t call him. If I ________________________________________________________________________________________

2. I feel terrible I can’t go to school. I ________________________________________________________________________________________

3. My parents don’t like him because he looks so strange. If he ________________________________________________________________________________________

4. He doesn’t get the good marks because he is lazy. He ________________________________________________________________________________________

5. She doesn’t speak Portuguese because she doesn’t live in Portugal.

________________________________________________________________________________________

6. You don’t lose weight because you eat too much.

________________________________________________________________________________________

THIRD CONDITIONAL(UNTRUE (CONTRARY TO FACT) IN THE PAST)

(l) If you had told me about the problem, I would have helped you.

(m) If they had studied, they would have passed the exam.

(n) If I hadn’t slipped on the ice, I wouldn’t have broken my arm.

In (m): In truth, they did not study. They failed the exam.

In (n): In truth, I slipped on the ice. I broke my arm.

Note: The auxiliary verbs are almost always contracted in speech. “If you’d told me, I would’ve helped you (OR: I’d’ve helped you).”

EXERCISE 6:Put the following words in order to create third conditional sentences

1) said / have / same / I'd / the / thing ……………………………………………………………

2) would / have / no. / He / said ……………………………………………………………

3) wouldn't / accepted. / They / have ……………………………………………………………

4) you / what / have / said? / would ……………………………………………………………

5) tried. / have / could / I ……………………………………………………………

6) it. / might / got / We / have ……………………………………………………………

7) You / have / done? / would / What ……………………………………………………………

EXERCISE 7 :Complete the sentences with the verbs in parentheses.

If I (have) ___________________ enough money, I will go with you.

If I (have) ___________________ enough money, I would go with you.

If I (have) ___________________ enough money, I would have gone with you.

If the weather is nice tomorrow, we (go) ___________________ to the zoo.

If the weather were nice today, we (go) ___________________ to the zoo.

If the weather had been nice yesterday, we (go) ___________________ to the zoo.

If Sally (be) ___________________ at home tomorrow, I am going to visit her.

Jim isn’t home right now. If he (be) ___________________ at home right now, I (visit) __________________him.

Linda wasn’t at home yesterday. If she (be) ________________ at home yesterday, I (visit) ______________ her.

EXERCISE 8:Complete the sentences.

1. If she _______________________ (arrive) on time, she wouldn’t have missed the English lesson.

2. If you _____________________________ (be) more careful, you might not have broken your glasses.

3. If he hadn´t watched TV until midnight, he ____________________________ (not be) late for work.

4. You ______________________________ (not get) the job if you hadn´t applied for it.

5. If I had invited you to my wedding party, ______________________________ (you/go)?

6. She ____________________________ (have) better grades in her exams if she had worked harder.

EXERCISE 9:Rewrite the following sentences. Use the third conditional.

1. He didn´t get the job because he forgot to come to the interview.

2. I didn´t do any part-time jobs while I was at school, so I gained no work experience.

3. William broke into a house and went to prison.

4. It was more expensive because you didn´t come on the bus.

5. She didn´t get better because she refused to go to the doctor.

6. We didn´t pass because we didn´t study.

7. He didn´t go out with us because he broke his leg.

8. He broke his leg because he fell.

EXERCISE 10:Complete the sentences with the verbs in parentheses.

1. It’s too bad Helen isn’t here. If she (be) ________________ here, she (know) __________________ what to do.

2. Fred failed the test because he didn’t study. However, if he (study) ___________________ for the test, he (pass) ___________________ it.

3. An aerosol spray can will explode if you (throw) ___________________ it into a fire.

4. You should tell your father exactly what happened. If I (be) ___________________ you, I (tell) ___________________ him the truth as soon as possible.

5. If I (have) _________________ my camera with me yesterday, I (take) _________________ a picture of Alex standing on his head.

6. I’m almost ready to plant my garden. I have a lot of seeds. Maybe I have more than I need. If I (have) ___________________ more seeds than I need, I (give) ___________________ some to Nellie.

7. I got wet because I didn’t take my umbrella. However, I (get, not) ___________________ wet if I (remember) ___________________ to take my umbrella with me yesterday.

8. I (change) ___________________ the present economic policy if I (be) ___________________ the President of the United States.

9. If the teacher (be) ___________________ absent tomorrow, class will be cancelled.

10. George has only two pairs of socks. If he (have) ___________________ more than two pairs of socks, he (have to, not) ___________________ wash his socks so often.

11. That sounds like a good job offer. If I (be) ___________________ you, I (accept) ___________________ it.

12. The cowboy pulled his gun to shoot at the rattlesnake, but he was too late. If he (be) ___________________ quicker to pull the trigger, the snake (bite, not) ___________________ him on the ankle. It’s a good thing he was wearing heavy leather boots.

EXERCISE 11:Choose the correct ending for the following sentences

1. If the weather had been better yesterday, ……………………………………………………………

2. If Jane had arrived on time last night, ……………………………………………………………

3. If I had studied more for my exams, ……………………………………………………………

4. We would have had a wonderful weekend ……………………………………………………………

5. The party would have been funnier ……………………………………………………………

EXERCISE 12:Supply the appropriate auxiliary verb

1. I don’t have a pen, but if I ___________________, I would lend it to you.

2. He is busy right now, but if he ___________________, he would help us.

3. I didn’t vote in the last election, but if I ___________________, I would have voted for Senator Anderson.

4. I don’t have enough money, but if I ___________________, I would buy that book.

5. The weather is cold today, but if it ___________________, I would go swimming.

6. She didn’t come, but if she ___________________, she would have met my brother.

7. I’m not a good cook, but if I ___________________, I would make all of my own meals.

8. I have to go to class this afternoon, but if I ___________________, I would go downtown with you.

9. He didn’t go to a doctor, but if he ___________________, the cut on his hand wouldn’t have gotten infected.

10. I always pay my bills. If I ___________________, I would get in a lot of trouble.

11. Helium is lighter than air. If it ___________________, a helium-filled balloon wouldn’t float upward.

12. I called my husband to tell him I would be late. If I ___________________, he would have gotten worried about me.

ORAL: WHAT WOULD YOU…? What would you do in these situations?

1) If you had to choose a place to live outside your country, which one would you choose and why?

3) If you had plenty of money to give away, what would you do with it?

4) What three things would you take if your house was on fire?

8) You find a lot of money in the street?

9) You were a girl/boy for a day?

10) What will happen if we don’t protect the environment?

11) If you had a child, how would you bring him/her up?

13) If you were a teacher, how would you behave with your students?

14) What would happen if you failed three courses this year?

15) You could be invisible for a day?

16) You saw a bear in the forest?

17) Had one day left to live?

18) Were in a war?

19) You find out you were adopted?

21) You can get any job you wanted?

22) Your friend is drunk and cannot drive?

ORAL (BOOKS CLOSED): Answer each question. Begin with “No, but…”

Example: Do you have a dollar?

Response: No, but if I did (No, but if I had a dollar), I would lend it to you.

1. Are you rich?

2. Do you have a car?

3. Are you a bird?

4. Are you in (student’s country/hometown)?

5. Do you live in an apartment? Dormitory? Hotel?

6. Are you the teacher of this class?

7. Do you have your own airplane?

8. Are you (the President of the United States)?

9. Are you tired?

10. Are you at home right now?

11. Are you married? Single?

12. Do you speak (another language)?

13. Is the weather hot/cold today?

14. Are you hungry?

15. Do you live in (New York City)?

EXERCISE 14: ORAL (BOOKS CLOSED): Begin your response with “But if I had known…”

Example: There was a test yesterday. You didn’t know that, so you didn’t study.

Response: But If I had known (that there was a test yesterday), I would have studied.

1. Your friend was in the hospital. You didn’t know that, so you didn’t visit her.

2. I’ve never met your friend. You didn’t know that, so you didn’t introduce me.

3. There was a party last night. You didn’t know that, so you didn’t go.

4. Your friend’s parents are in town. You didn’t know that, so you didn’t invite them to dinner.

5. I wanted to go to the soccer game. You didn’t know that, so you didn’t buy another ticket.

6. I was at home last night. You didn’t know that, so you didn’t visit me.

7. Your sister wanted a gold necklace for her birthday. You didn’t know that, so you didn’t buy her one.

8. I had a problem. You didn’t know that, so you didn’t offer to help.

9. The book you loved was at a discount. You didn’t know that, so you didn’t buy it.

10. The girl you liked had a boyfriend. You didn’t know that, so she turned you down.

EXERCISE 15: Change the following statements into conditional sentences.

1. I didn’t buy it because I didn’t have enough money. But… I would have bought it if I’d had enough money.

2. I won’t buy it because I don’t have enough money. But…

3. You got into so much trouble because you didn’t listen to me. But…

4. We ran out of gas because we didn’t stop at the service station. But…

5. Jack came, so I wasn’t disappointed. But…

6. The woman didn’t die because she received immediate medical attention. But…

7. There are so many bugs in the room because there isn’t a screen on the window. But…

8. Ann didn’t pass the entrance examination, so she wasn’t admitted to the university. But…

Date: 2015-12-11; view: 1873

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