Material-reformative activity with things comes the basis of cognition of world. That is the subject of cognitionis not isolated from material transformations, from the concrete life, he is not abstractly theorizing contemplator or he is not a «gnoseological robinzone», and – he is a producer of knowledge.
II-1. Please, try to understand, here is difficultness: Subject and Object form contradiction. Subject wants to master by Object, by a thing, and they - resist, and so they force people to look for objective logic of transformation of this thing, of this object.
3. Logic of cognition (of spiritual activity of subject). process of
2. Logic of activity (of action). Practice decision of this
1. Logic of object (of nature). Reality. contradictions
We act in retrograde.
Transition of material (a thing, an object) in Ideal (image) is realized. It consists of 3 stages. 1 - there is the contact with an object (through mediators…). Methods of «re-moval» from the thing necessary information are formed by practice. 2 - is the inclusion of inside of informative chain: external signals areperceived and recoded in nervous impulses by sense-organs. Ideal image appears on the 3-rd stage: on the basis of matrices a subject decrypts the nervous impulses. Ideal image is never identical to sensory data.
II-3. Position of sensationalism, according to Helvetsy (XVIII c.), is such: «all, that is inaccessible to sense, is inaccessible for a mind». The rationalist R. Decart has opposite opinion: «Cogito ergo sum» - “I think, consequently, I exist». In actual fact cognition is dialectical. It moves from forms less difficult and direct, perceptible - to forms more difficult, mediated– rational forms. H/T: THINK above the questions: 1. Dosensations give knowledge ? (Whether was knowledge been given by sensations ?)
2. Are senses able to come over general?
3. What is difference between perceptible images of man and perceptible images of animal? (Have animals perceptible cognition?)
4. Why is it impossible to give up feeling as an archaic form of cognition?
II-4. Intuitionalism considers intuition the reliable mean of cognition uniquely. A. Bergson contrasted intuition to the intellect and saw in intuition direct confluence of subject with an object. He connectedintuition with instinct and considered it is characterized for the artistic (instead of not scientific) model of cognition.
In phenomenology at E. Gusserl intuition is «essence vision» above all things, it is «ideation», or direct contemplation of general. At Z. Freud intuition is hidden, irresponsible first principle of creation.
III-1. An Error /an illusion is knowledge which doesn’t correspond with the object, does not coincide with it. The source of error is the lack of development, narrow-mindedness, defects of social-history practice and cognition. On essence error is the distorted reflection of reality, which arises out from absolutization of separate sides of reality.
Errors are inevitable, it is the necessary moment of movement of cognition to truth.
Error needs to be distinguished from lie (untruth) – lie is intentional distortionof truth in mercenary interests. If the illusion is description of knowledge, an error is the result of wrong actions of individual in any sphere of his activity. There are errors in the calculations, in a policy, on vital affairs.
III-2. What are basic properties, signs of truth? 1-st and initial property is objectivity. It means conditionality of truth by real reality, by practice, and independence of content of veritable knowledge from separate people. 2. Truth is subjective by form and on idealcontent: people cognize truth and express it in certain subjective forms (notions, laws, theories and etc.). 3. Hegel: truth is process, instead of some non-permanent act of understanding of object at once, fully and in full measure.
The categories of absolute (expresses proof, unchanging in the phenomena) and relative are used (expresses variable, transient) for description of objective truth as a process. Absolute and relative truths - are two necessary moments of one and the same objective truth, of any knowledge. They express differentstages of cognition, each of the given stages has the specific.
4. Absolute truth is understood as 1) complete, exhaustive knowledge about reality on the whole – as gnoseological ideal, which nowhere will be attained, although cognition more and more comes to it; 2) as that element of knowledge which can not be never refuted in the future. 5.Relative truth expresses deepening, specification of every veritable knowledge during development of practice and cognition.
III-3. Specification of truth is the 6-th property. Truth acts in a certain interval, because object, its properties, connections are not abstract, and are vital-eventual, perceptible.
III-4. For people a question about that, how to check up truth was always actual. Different positions on that score were expressed. R.Decart: clarity and expressiveness are criteria of veritable knowledge. L. Feyerbah: perceptible data («wherein sensuality begins, every dispute ends»). Were pulled out also general meaning (that is acknowledged by many people); benefit, profit, that results in success (D. Dyui: “that is true what is useful”); that answers to the conditionalagreement- conventionalism (A. Puancare); what people strongly believe in (B. Russell:«there is true or false only a faith»), that answers opinion of authorities and etc.
Dialectics-materialistic philosophy gave such answer : PRACTICE is the main criterion of truth. H/T: why?