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Lesson 4 Morphophonology

1 It won't start; either the ... is flat, or the ... are dirty.

2 It's got a nice spacious ... for your luggage, all-weather ... to reduce the risk of skidding in wet weather, and a ... showing you everything from the time you've been travelling to the ... you should be in at any given moment.

3 Fortunately the ... wasn't damaged when he drove into the back of me, but the ... is quite badly bent.

4 The first thing you do for an emergency stop is take your foot off the ... and press both feet down on the ... and the ....

5 If you have the ... out for too long, the ... will be flooded with petrol.

 

Would you prefer to travel by bicycle?

Take a look at the parts of the bike shown here; then test yourself by covering the words.

1 handlebars

2 bell

3 pedals

4 mudguard

5 tyre

6 valve

7 chain

8 saddle

9 crossbar

10 spokes

11 inner tube

12 pump

 

6) See if you can explain the difference between the following types of vehicle.

1 a tandem, a normal bicycle 2 a wheelchair, a push-chair 3 a scooter, a moped 4 a trolley, a pram 5 a sleigh, a toboggan 6 an estate car, a hatchback 7 a tricycle, a three-wheeler 8 a lorry, a truck, a van 9 a bus, a tram, a coach  

 

Note the parts of the strange-looking boat — or is it a ship? - below.

Then draw three different kinds of boat and label each drawing.

1 oars

2 rudder

3 mast

4 sail

5 deck

6 hull

7 keel

8 funnel

9 porthole

10 cabin

11 port

12 starboard

13 stern

14 bow

15 propeller


7). Read this insurance claim and use it to complete the chart which follows.

Which words go with which? Tick the boxes.

The accident was caused, I believe, because the lights on the boy's bicycle were faulty. Thus I did not see him until I had turned across the road. Obviously I had to swerve to try to avoid him and that is why I hit the wall. The boy crashed into the bollards at the side of the road. The bicycle ended up with a buckled front wheel. My car is almost a complete write-off. The headlights are smashed, the bonnet is dented and the front bumper is completely buckled. Of course the windscreen was shattered and there are two big dents in the wing. Luckily neither of us was seriously hurt.

 

  wing bumper headlight windscreen wheel
dented          
shattered          
buckled          
broken          
faulty          
smashed          

 

H/W. Reading: No country in the world seems to be immune from traffic tie-ups and costly accidents. The way people drive cars in Cairo may make you laugh, but automobile accidents are no joke. Here is the story of how Egypt is dealing with this problem.



CAIRO TIGHTENS LAX APPROACH TO DRIVER TEST

CAIRO— Dec. 8— It was examination time at the shabby department office in the Giza suburb of Cairo. License applicants waited nervously to demonstrate their proficiency by driving forward, then harking up and parking alongside a white line painted on the asphalt.

As spectators kibitzed, a middle aged matron edged her sedan cautiously ahead. Not knowing how to shift into reverse, she had hired a small boy to push the car backward. The inspector advised her to return after a week and try again. A confident young man squealed to a stop, propelled his Fiat backward in a cloud of dust perpendicular to the white line. He flunked too.

The only requirement for an Egyptian driver's license used to be knowing how to put the car in gear. A Cairo resident who took his test several years ago recalled taking along a car load of friends, who were also awarded licenses by the amiable inspectors.

Standards were Tightened

The standards ate tougher now. In the Attabe traffic office of central Cairo, applicants must perform a series of turns. Until recently in Giza, they had to back between two rubber traffic cones. Apparently because of high cone attrition this was changed to the painted white lines.

Drivers must also present doctors' certificates attesting to good health and vision, though the applicants have been known to send their doormen out to have the forms done.They must also identify traffic symbols from a plastic-covered chart, held upside down when this reporter took the test.

But drivers are not tested on how to behave on the road, and there are few deterrents to recklessness. Poor discipline, ineffectual law enforcement, and rattletrap vehicles contribute to some notorious traffic jams.

It is not unusual in Cairo for drivers to cruise up one-way streets the wrong way, disregard traffic lights, abruptly swerve right from left-hand lanes, and park on the sidewalks. Turn signals are seldom used; seat belts, never. Kasr el-Nil and Sarwa streets in central Cairo become so clogged with double and triple parking that moving traffic must compete for the one remaining lane.

Fines Paid with License Renewal

The drivers keep doing it because they never get punished on the spot. Instead, policemen write down the license numbers of offending cars and the fines, from 70 cents to $7, are added to the annual license renewal. This has hardly inhibited bad driving, In the neighborhood of Zamalek the other day a stream of cars made a particularly popular U-turn in front of a lone policeman, who could not jot down the license numbers fast enough.

At Galaa Square a sedan forged on through a red light, dodging a policeman who heroically tried to interpose himself in the intersection.

Of the 250,000 motor vehicles that vie with pedestrians and pushcarts in Cairo's crowded streets, 85 170,000 are private cars. Nabil Halawa, chairman of the Public Transport Authority, disclosed this fall that private cars represented only 4 percent of Cairo's population, which exceeds 8 million people. The other 96 percent make do on overloaded buses and trams.

Mr. Halawa called this imbalance "a situation that is very hard to believe, yet it is true." But his proposal that the cars be confined to side streets on weekdays to make more room for public transport has not met with visible enthusiasm.

Cars Reflect Rich-Poor Gap

The crush of automobiles has accentuated the gap between rich and poor. David Gurin, Deputy Transportation

Commissioner for New York City visited Egypt last winter and noticed "a class struggle in the streets of Cairo between the people who have automobiles and those who don't."

Mr. Gurin said at a seminar here that "in few places have I ever felt as swimming in transportation as I have here."

While New York and Cairo are roughly the same size in population, he observed, Cairo has only half as many buses and no subway.

Last spring, the Ministry of Transport and Communications issued a report admitting that Egypt had the world's highest death rate for road accidents. The report said that for every 1,000 cars in Egypt, 2.049 persons were killed annually, which is ten times the rate for Britain. The snail's pace of Cairo traffic has kept fatalities down, but mangled automobiles are a common sight.

Attempts to reduce the congestion have included the construction of overpasses and some confusing experiments with one-way arteries.

A. Based on the reading, decide whether the following sentences are true or false.

1. It's harder than it used to be to get a driver's license in Cairo.

2. One woman hired a small boy to take the test for her.

3. Parking the car used to be the only thing you had to do to pass the driving test.

4. Several years ago, a Cairo resident bribed an inspector so that all his Mends would be awarded licenses.

5. Even though the driver's test is tougher, traffic in Cairo is still very bad.

6. Speeding motorists are one of the main reasons for the traffic problems in Cairo.

7. The Cairo police make many arrests for traffic violations.

8. The traffic in Cairo is congested because most people drive to work.

9. There are proportionately more traffic fatalities in Egypt than in Britain.

10. Many cars in Cairo have dents from accidents.

B. Which of the sentences above best states the main idea of the reading? Circle it.

C. Fill in the blanks with the correct word.

Clogged, dodge, ineffectual, tougher, cruise, fatally, reckless, deter flunked /shabby

1. Since he's been unemployed, his face is unshaven and his clothes look ……….

2. Many feel that parents should be …………..on their unruly children.

3. What will ………………… him from leading a life of crime?

4. She won't go in the car with him because he's such a ………………… driver.

5. Call the plumber because the sink is ………………………..

6. She was ……………………….. injured in the car crash.

7. He didn't study at all so it was no surprise when he …………………. the test.

8. During the Vietnam War, some young men went to Canada to …………………………..the draft.

9. A 28-foot sailboat is the perfect size for a one-week …………………….

10. The union made an ………………………… attempt to pressure the management, but it finally voted for a new contract.

 

8). Complete the table with the following verbs.

Pull over, cycle, accelerate, speed, spin, slow down, draw away, pull up, pedal, overtake, speed up, skid, drive, swerve, and decelerate.

a )Put (B) or (C) in brackets if the verb can only be used for either bicycles or cars.

Stop  
Start  
move in or on a  
means of transport  
go fast  
go faster  
go slower  
Pass  
lose control  

b) What is the difference in meaning between these words?

v pull over and pull up

n spin, skid and swerve

 

9). Using a dictionary choose the best answer a, b or c in the following sentences.

1. Where would you find a crash barrier on a motorway?

a. on the central reservation

b. in a motorway service area

c. in the fast lane

2. What goes round a town?

a. a bypass

b. a dual carriageway

c. a ring road

3. What normally runs along the side of motorways?

a. a lay by

b. a grass verge

c. a hard shoulder

4. What takes boats on water across a road?

a. an aqueduct

b. a bridge

c. a viaduct

5. Which roads are supposed to carry the least traffic?

a. unclassified roads

b. B-roads

c. A-roads

 

10). Answer these questions about your own country.

1 Do you have a speed limit on motorways? If so, what is it?

2 How many lanes do motorways usually have?

3 Do drivers usually stop for pedestrians at pedestrian crossings?

4 Are most petrol stations self-service, or do people serve you?

 

H/W 11) . Fill the gaps with the correct words.

1 Don't forget to …….. your belt when you …………..the car.

2 There was a bad accident this morning. One driver died, the other driver was badly……………, and both cars were badly ………………

3 In the morning, the ………………………. starts at about 7 o'clock and goes on until at least 9.30.

Then it starts again about 4.30 in the afternoon.

4 It was raining, so when I ……………….the car didn't stop quickly enough, and I ………………….. into the back of the car in front.

5 The bicycle hit me just as I stepped off the …………………. to cross the road.

6 The car …………………… , so I phoned a garage and they sent someone to repair it.

7 There was a terrible ………………. , and that's why it took me two hours to get home in the car.

8 I was doing about 65, mph on the inside of the motorway, and suddenly a car ……………me doing about 90 mph.

 

H/W 12) . Movement to and from : Supply the best word or words.

1 The children were stuck up our apple tree and they couldn't.......................

a) descend b) get down c) get off d) get out

2 I knocked timidly at the door and heard someone shout' ....................!'

a) Enter b) Come in

3 Everyone turned round and looked at me as I ...................the room.

a) entered into b) entered c) got into

4 The blind man ...................carefully to the other side of the road.

a) crossed b) passed c) past

5 What time did you...................London Airport?

a) reach to b) arrive to c) arrive at

6 My son................... at university for the last two years.

a) has gone b) has been c) went

7 What time did you ................... London?

a) leave from b) live c) live from d) leave

8 I was locked out and I had to....................through the window.

a) enter b) get in c) get into d) enter in

9 Let's go....................in Oxford Street.

a) for shop b) shopping c) to shop d) shop

 


Grammar: Modal Verbs in Reported Speech

 

Some modal verbs change in Reported Speech when the reported sentence is out of date, as follows will/shall → would, can →could (present reference)/would be able to (future reference), may → might/could, shall → should (asking for advice) / would (asking for information) / offer (expressing offers), must → must/had to (obligation) (* "must" remains the same when it expresses possibility or deduction), needn't → didn't need to / didn't have to (present reference) / wouldn't have to (future reference).

 

Direct Speech Reported Speech
He said, “l’ll phone you this evening." He said that he would phone me that evening.
He said, "I can speak French." He said (that) he could speak French.
He said, "I can join you next weekend.” He said (that) he would be able to join us the next weekend.
He said, "I may be late home." He said (that) he might be late home.
He said, 'How shall I get there?" He asked how he should get there, (advice)
He said, "Where shall we go?" He asked where they should go. (information)
He said, "Shall I take you home?" He offered to take me home, (offer)
He said, "You must try harder." He said (that) i had to try harder, (obligation)
He said, "You must be joking.” He said (that) I must be joking, (deduction)
He said, "You should take a holiday.' He said (that) I should take a holiday.
He said, "She had better tidy her room." He said (that) she had better tidy her room.
He said, "She needn't know who he was." He said (that) she didn't need to/have to know who he was.
He said, "You needn't meet me tomorrow. He said (that) I wouldn't have to meet him the next day.

 

Ex. 1. Turn the following sentences into Reported Speech.

1 He said, "Shall I carry your bags?" ...He offered to carry my bags.

2 He said, "She needn't see the report." ..................................................

3 He said, "I'll pick you up at 4 o'clock."...................................................

4 He said, "You should get away for a while."..........................................

5 He said, "Kevin may need your help later."...........................................

6 He said, "You must control your feelings."............................................

7 He said, "You need to let me know tomorrow." ....................................

8 He said, "She had better not say that again." .......................................

9 He said, "We must be cousins." ............................................................

10 He said, "I can run faster than you." ......................................................

11 He said, "I can meet you next week.".....................................................

12 He said, "Who shall I go to for help?"....................................................

13 He said, "Where shall we go to eat tonight?"........................................

14 He said, "Shall I lend you the money?"

 

Reported Commands/Requests/Suggestions

To report commands, requests, suggestions we use an introductory verb (advise, ask, beg, offer, suggest etc) followed by a to-infinitive, an -ing form or a that-clause depending on the introductory verb.

 

"Be careful," he said to me. He told me to be careful, (command)
"Please don't talk," he said to me He asked me not to talk, (request)
. "Let's watch TV," he said. He suggested watching 7V. (suggestion)
"You'd better go to the dentist," he said. He suggested that I (should) go to the dentist, (suggestion)

 

Ex.2. Turn the following sentences from Direct to Reported Speech.

1 "Don't run down the corridors, please," he said to us. ...He asked us not to run down the corridors.

2 "May I leave the room, please?" said the student...............................................................................

3 "Let's turn on the television," said Paul...............................................................................................

4 "Soldiers! Stand to attention!" said the Major.....................................................................................

5 "Can you open the window?" she said to me.....................................................................................

6 "Shall we go ice-skating on Saturday?" said Miles.............................................................................

7 "Don't touch the statue!" he said to us................................................................................................

8 "Shall we go camping this summer?" said my brother.......................................................................

9 "Let's have a picnic tomorrow," said John

 

Lesson 4 Morphophonology

 

 

Discussion. As you can see the term morphophonology is actually a combination of two other terms: morphology and phonology. What does morphology deals with? What does phonology deals with? Do you know why and how morphology and phonology intersect?

 

 

Text 1. Morphophonology

 

Task 1. Read the text.

 

Morphophonology (also morphophonemics, morphonology) is a branch of linguistics which studies:

o the phonological structure of morphemes.

o the combinatory phonic modifications of morphemes which happen when they are combined

o the alternative series which serve a morphological function.

Examples of a morphophonological alternatives in English include these distinctions:

Plurals "-es" and "-s", as in "bus, buses", vs. "bun, buns".

Plural of "-f" is "-ves", as in "leaf, leaves"

Different pronunciations for the past tense marker "-ed".

 

English, being mostly an isolating language, does not have much morphophonology. Inflected and agglutinating languages may have extremely complicated systems, e.g. consonant gradation.

 


Date: 2014-12-28; view: 344


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