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Text: MICROBIOLOGY

The planet is warming, from North Pole to South Pole, and every­where in between. Globally, the Mercury is already up more than 1 deg­ree Fahrenheit (0.8 degree Celsius), and even more in sensitive polar regions. And the effects of rising temperatures aren't waiting for some far-flung future. They're happening right now. Signs are ap­pearing all over, and some of them are surprising. The heat is not only melting glaciers and sea ice; it's also shifting precipitation patterns and setting animals on the move.

Some impacts from increasing temperatures are already happening:

• Ice is melting worldwide, especially at the Earth's poles. This in­cludes mountain glaciers, ice sheets covering West Antarctica and Greenland, and Arctic sea ice.

• The researcher Bill Fraser has tprecipitation

• racked the decline of the penguins on Antarctica, where their numbers have fallen from 32,000 breed­ing pairs to 11,000 in 30 years.

The sea level rise became faster over the last century Some butterflies, foxes, and alpine plants have moved farther north or to higher, cooler areas.

Precipitation (rain and snowfall) has increased across the globe, on average.

Spruce bark beetles have boomed in Alaska thanks to 20 years of warm summers. The insects have chewed up 4 million acres of spruce trees.

Other effects could happen later this century, if warming con­tinues.

Sea levels are expected to rise between 7 and 23 inches (18 and 59 centimetres) by the end of the century, and continued melting at the poles could add between 4 and 8 inches (10 to 20 centi­metres).

Hurricanes and other storms are likely to become stronger. Species that depend on one another may become out of sync. For example, plants could bloom earlier than their pollinating insects become active.

Floods and droughts will become more common. Rainfall in Ethio­pia, where droughts are already common, could decline by 10 per­cent over the next 50 years.

Less fresh water will be available. If the Quelccaya ice cap in Peru continues to melt at its current rate, it will be gone by 2100, leav­ing thousands of people who rely on it for drinking water and electricity without a source of either.

Some diseases will spread, such as malaria carried by mosqui­toes.

Ecosystems will change — some species will move farther north of become more successful; others won't be able to move and could become extinct. The wildlife research scientist Martyn Obbard has found that since the mid-1980s, with less ice on which to live and fish for food, polar bears have become considerably skinnier. The polar bear biologist Ian Stirling has found a similar pattern in the Hudson Bay. He fears that if sea ice disappears, the polar bears will as well.

Writing

Work in groups

Writing: A Report 'Global warming and natural disasters'

Layout

Heading Subject:

Date:

1. Aim of the report

Introduce the report with your aim and a background information. The aim of the report is to... This report aims to....

2. Negative comments



List all the negative findings.

There are several disappointing facts and figures.

3. Positive comments

List all the positive findings.

On the other hand, there are some encouraging things.

4. Conclusions and recommendations

Write a simple conclusion and make a couple of recommendations. To sum up,... Government should... People need to...

Style

A report is normally written in a formal style:

Avoid giving personal opinions

Use formal linking words and expressions.

Listing points: also, furthermore, in addition, moreover... Contrasting points: however, on the other hand, although, despite Giving examples: for example, in this way, such as, particularly / especially

Showing effects: as a result, what this means Concluding: to sum up, all things considered.

III. Homework

To write a report 'The problem of global warming and natural disasters' in our country'.

Let It Snow


[Frank Sinatra:]

Oh the weather outside is frightful

But the fire is so delightful

Since we've no place to go

Let it snow, let it snow, let it snow

 

It doesn't show signs of stopping

And I've brought some corn for popping

The lights are turned down low

Let it snow, let it snow, let it snow

 

When we finally kiss goodnight

How I'll hate going out in a storm

But if you really hold me tight

All the way home I'll be warm

 

The fire is slowly dying

And my dear we're still goodbying

As long as you love me so

Let it snow, let it snow, let it snow

 

[Backup voices:]

He doesn't care if it's in below

He's sitting by the fire's glossy glow

He don't care about the cold and the winds that blow

He just says, let it snow, let it snow, let it snow

 

[Frank Sinatra:]

Let it snow!

 

[Backup voices:]

Oooooh wee goes the storm

Why should he worry when he's nice and warm

His girl by his side and the lights turned low

He just says, let it snow, let it snow

 

[Frank Sinatra:]

I don't care!

 

[Instrumental:]

 

[Frank Sinatra:]

The weather outside is frightful

But that fire is ummm... Delightful

Since we've no place to go

Let it snow, let it snow, let it snow

 

It doesn't show signs of stopping

And I've brought lots of corn for popping

The lights are way down low

So let it snow, let it snow, let it snow

 

[Backup voices:]

Let it snow!

[Frank Sinatra:]

When we finally say goodnight

How I'll hate going out in a storm

But if you really hold me tight

All the way home I'll be warm

 

The fire is slowly dying

And my dear we're still goodbying

As long as you love me so

Let it snow, let it snow, let it snow


 

 

Text: MICROBIOLOGY

Grammar: TYPES OF QUESTIONS (Revision).

PRONOUNS.

 

PRE-TEXT ASSIGNMENTS:

 

Exercise 1. Learn the following new words:

 

1. microbiology 2. stereoscope 3. unicellular 4. multicellular 5. acellular 6. protozoans 7. yeast 8. algae 9. fungi 10. encompass 11. discipline 12. virology 13. mycology 14. parasitology 15. bacteriology 16. biosynthesis 17. Louis Pasteur 18. Robert Koch   ['maikrəubai 'ɔləʤi] ['sterɪəskəup] [ju:ni 'seljulə] [mʌlti ' ] [ei ' ] [prəutəu'zəuns] [ji:st] ['ælʤɪ ] ['fʌnʤi] [en'kʌmpəs] ['disəplin] [vaiə'rɔləʤɪ] [mai 'kɔləʤɪ] [pærəsai 'tɔləʤɪ] [bæktiəri 'ɔləʤɪ] [baiəu 'sɪnθesis] ['Lu:is Pæs 'tə:] ['Rɔbət Kəuk]   1.

 

Exercise 2. Read the following paying attention to the rules of reading

 

[əs] – vigorous, numerous, famous, fibrous, nervous, venous, subcutaneous

[ɑ:] – dance, plant, grant, advantage, branch, advance

[ə] – contain, consists, comprise, concern, control, correct, complete

 

Exercise 3. Study the suffixes and terminology. Read and translate the following words and give more examples of your own:

 

– ology: study of– ( histology, morphology, physiology, ecology…

– bio: life and living things– (biology, biophysics, biorhythms, biopsy…

– micro: very small– (microscope, microscopy, microsurgery, microbes...

physio: nature and living things – ( physician, physics, physiopathology…

 

Exercise 4. Make Adverbs from Adjectives. Translate them into Ukrainian

 

Model: slow – slowly (

Slow, vigorous, quick, numerous, rapid, nervous, general, subcutaneous, intramuscular, common, sharp.

 

Exercise 5. Give the Plural of the following Nouns:

 

Example: analysis – analyses, force – forces.

 

Diagnosis, process, force, analysis, disease, abscess, science, medicine, prognosis, course, neurosis.

 

Exercise 6. Read and translate the word combinations into your native language:

 

microscopic organisms; scientific study; controlling activities; numerous sub-disciplines; disease-causing microorganisms; harmful effects; channeling the activities; to benefit medicine; produce antibiotics; the branches of microbiology; pure and applied sciences; advances made in physics; the practical usefulness; the improvement of health; treatment options; outbreaks of disease; species and their properties, to examine under a stereoscope.

 

Exercise 7. Match the terms with their explanations:

 

1.stereoscope 2.microbiology 3.virology 4.mycology 5.parasitology 6.bacteriology 7.biosynthesis   a)the branch of medicine concerned with the study of viruses and the diseases they cause; b)the formation of complex compounds from simple substances by living organisms; c)an optical instrument for viewing two-dimensional pictures and giving them an illusion of depth and relief.; d)the branch of biology involving the study of microorganisms; e)the branch of biology concerned with the study of fungi; f)the branch of biology that is concerned with the study of parasites; g)the branch of science concerned with the study of bacteria.

 

Exercise 8: Read and translate the text:

 


Date: 2014-12-28; view: 147


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