2. Sue lives in this building. Where's her flat exactly? ---.
3. Where is the woman standing? ---.
4. Where is the man standing? ---.
5. Where's the dog? ---.
6. What's the man doing?
He's looking ---.
7. Ann is in this group of people. Where is she? ---.
8. Tom is at the cinema. Where is he sitting? ---.
9. a. Where's the post office? ---.
b. And the bank? ---.
10. Where does Kate work? ---.
123.2 Complete the sentences. Use in, at or on + one of the following:
the west coast the world the front row the right the back of the envelope the sky the back of the class my way to work
1. it was a lovely day. There wasn't a cloud _in the sky._
2. In most countries people drive ---.
3. What is the tallest building ---?
4. I usually buy a newspaper --- in the morning.
5. San Francisco is --- of the United States.
6. We went to the theatre last night. We had seats ---.
7. I couldn't hear the teacher very well. She spoke quietly and I was sitting ---.
8. When you send a letter, it is a good idea to write your name and address ---.
123.3 Complete the sentences with in, at or on.
1. It can be dangerous when children play --- the street.
2. If you walk to the end of the street, you'll see a small shop --- the corner.
3. Is Tom --- this photograph? I can't find him.
4. My office is the first floor. It's --- the left as you come out of the lift.
5. We normally use the front entrance but there's another entrance --- the back.
6. A: Is there anything interesting --- the paper today?
B: Well, there's an unusual photograph --- the back page.
7. I love to look up at the stars --- the sky at night.
8. (in a restaurant) 'Where shall we sit?' 'Over there, --- the corner.'
9. When I'm a passenger in a car, I prefer to sit --- the front.
10. It's a very small village. You probably won't find it --- your map.
11. Paris is --- the river Seine.
UNIT 124 In/at/on (place) (3)
A. In bed/at home etc.
We say that somebody is in bed/in hospital/in prison:
* Mark isn't up yet. He's still in bed.
* Kay's mother is in hospital.
We say that somebody is at home/at work/at school/at university/at college:
* I'll be at work until 5.30 but I'll be at home all evening.
* Julia is studying chemistry at university.
Also at sea (= on a voyage). Compare at sea and in the sea:
* It was a long voyage. We were at sea for 30 days.
* I love swimming in the sea.
B. At a party/at a concert etc.
We say that somebody is at an event (at a party/at a conference etc.):
* Were there many people at the party/at the meeting?
* I saw Jack at a football match/at a concert last Saturday.
C. In and at for buildings
You can often use in or at with buildings. For example, you can eat in a restaurant or at a restaurant. We usually say at when we say where an event takes place (for example, a concert, a film, a party, a meeting, a sports event):
* We went to a concert at the Royal Festival Hall.
* The meeting took place at the company's headquarters.
* The film I want to see is showing at the Odeon (cinema).
We say at the station/at the airport:
* Don't meet me at the station. I can get a taxi.
We say at somebody's house:
* I was at Judy's house last night. or I was at Judy's last night.
Also: at the doctor's, at the hairdresser's etc.
We use in when we are thinking about the building itself:
* The rooms in Judy's house are very small. (not 'at Judy's house')
* I enjoyed the film but it was very cold in the cinema. (not 'at the cinema')
D. In and at for towns etc.
We normally use in with cities, towns and villages:
* Tom's parents live in Nottingham. (not 'at Nottingham')
* The Louvre is a famous art museum in Paris. (not 'at Paris')
But you can use at or in when you think of the place as a point or station on a journey:
* Do you know if this train stops at (or in) Nottingham? (=at Nottingham station)
* We stopped at (or in) a small village on the way to London.
E. On a bus/in a car etc.
We usually say on a bus/on a train/on a plane/on a ship but in a car/in a taxi:
* The bus was very full. There were too many people on it.
* George arrived in a taxi.
We say on a bicycle/on a motorcycle/on a horse:
* Mary passed me on her bicycle.
For by bus/by car/by bicycle etc., see Unit 127.
124.1 Complete the sentences about the pictures. Use in, at or on with the words below the pictures.
(the airport) (a train) (a conference) (hospital) (the hairdresser) (her bicycle),(New York) (the National Theatre)
1. You can hire a car _at the airport._
2. Dave is ---.
3. Tessa is ---.
4. Martinis ---.
5. Judy is ---.
6. I saw Mary ---.
7. We spent a few days ---.
8. We saw a play ---.
124.2 Complete the sentences. Use in, at or on + one of the following:
sea hospital bed the station the cinema the plane school prison the airport the Sports Centre
1. My train arrives at 11.30. Can you meet me _at the station?_
2. I didn't feel very well when I woke up, so I stayed ---.
3. I think I'd like to see a film. What's on --- this week?
4. Some people are --- for crimes that they did not commit.
5. 'What does your sister do? Has she got a job?' 'No, she's still ---.
6. I play basketball --- on Friday evenings.
7. A friend of mine was injured in an accident a few days ago. She's still ---.
8. Our flight was delayed. We had to wait --- for four hours.
9. I enjoyed the flight but the food --- wasn't very nice.
10. Bill works on ships. He is away --- most of the time.
124.3 Complete these sentences with in, at or on.
1. I didn't see you --- the party on Saturday. Where were you?
2. It was a very slow train. It stopped --- every station.
3. I don't know where my umbrella is. Perhaps I left it --- the bus.
4. Shall we travel --- your car or mine?
5. The exhibition --- the Museum of Modern Art finished on Saturday.
6. We stayed a very nice hotel when we were --- Amsterdam.
7. There were fifty rooms --- the hotel.
8. Tom is ill. He wasn't --- work today. He was --- home --- bed.
9. I wasn't in when you phoned. I was --- my sister's house.
10. It's always too hot --- my sister's house. The heating is always on too high.
11. I haven't seen Kate for some time. I last saw her --- Dave's wedding.
12. Paul lives --- London. He's a student --- London University.
UNIT 125 To/at/in/into
A. We say go/come/travel (etc.) to a place or event. For example:
go to America, go to bed, take (somebody) to hospital, return to Italy, go to the bank, come to my house, drive to the airport, go to a concert, be sent to prison
* When are your friends returning to Italy? (not 'returning in Italy')
* After the accident three people were taken to hospital.
In the same way we say: on my way to./a journey to./a trip to. welcome to. etc.:
* Welcome to our country! (not 'welcome in')
Compare to (for movement) and in/at (for position):
* They are going to France. but They live in France.
* Can you come to the party? but I'll see you at the party.
B. Been to
We usually say 'I've been to a place':
* I've been to Italy four times but I've never been to Rome.
* Ann has never been to a football match in her life.
* Jack has got some money. He has just been to the bank.
C. Get and arrive
We say 'get to a place':
* What time did they get to London/get to work/get to the party?
But we say 'arrive in ...' or 'arrive at ...' (not 'arrive to').
We say 'arrive in a country or town/city':
* When did they arrive in Britain/arrive in London?
For other places (buildings etc.) or events, we say 'arrive at':
* What time did they arrive at the hotel/arrive at the party/arrive at work?
We do not say 'to home'. We say go home/come home/get home/arrive home/on the way home etc. (no preposition):
* I'm tired. Let's go home. (not 'go to home')
* I met Caroline on my way home.
But we say 'be at home', 'stay at home', 'do something at home' etc. See Units 73C and 124A.
'Go into ...', 'get into...' etc. = 'enter' (a room/a building/a car etc.):
* She got into the car and drove away.
* A bird flew into the kitchen through the window.
We sometimes use in (instead of into):
* Don't wait outside. Come in the house. (or Come into the house.)
Note that we say 'enter a building/enter a room' etc. (not 'enter into')
The opposite of into is out of:
* She got out of the car and went into a shop.
Note that we usually say 'get on/off a bus/a train/a plane':
* She got on the bus and I never saw her again.
125.1 Put in to/at/in/into where necessary. If no preposition is necessary leave an empty space (-).
1. Three people were taken _to_ hospital after the accident.
2. I met Caroline on my way (-) home. (no preposition)
3. We left our luggage --- the station and went to find something to eat.
4. Shall we take a taxi--- the station or shall we walk?
5. I must go --- the bank today to change some money.
6. The river Rhine flows --- the North Sea.
7. I'm tired. As soon as I get --- home, I'm going bed.
8. 'Have you got your camera?' 'No, I left it --- home.'
9. Marcel is French. He has just returned --- France after two years --- Brazil.
10. Are you going --- Linda's party next week?
11. Carl was born --- Chicago but his family moved --- New York when he was three. He still lives --- New York.
12. Have you ever been --- China?
13. I had lost my key but I managed to climb --- the house through a window.
14. We got stuck in a traffic jam on our way --- the airport.
15. We had lunch --- the airport while we were waiting for our plane.
16. Welcome --- the hotel. We hope you enjoy your stay here.
17. What do you say to someone visiting your town or country? Welcome ---!
125.2 Have you been to these places? If so, how many times? Choose three of the places and write a sentence using been to.
Athens Australia Ireland London Paris Rome Sweden the United States
1. (example answers) _I've never been to Australia./I've been to Australia three times._
125.3 Put in to/at/in where necessary. If no preposition is necessary leave an empty space (-).
1. What time does this train get _to_ London?
2. What time does this train arrive --- London?
3. What time did you get --- home last night?
4. What time do you usually arrive --- work in the morning?
5. When we got --- the cinema, there was a long queue outside.
6. I arrived --- home feeling very tired.
125.4 Write sentences using got into/out of/on/off.
1. You were walking home. A friend passed you in her car. She saw you, stopped and offered you a lift. She opened the door. What did you do? _I got into the car._
2. You were waiting for the bus. At last your bus came. The doors opened. What did you do then? I ---.
3. You drove home in your car. You arrived at your house and parked the car. What did you do then? ---.
4. You were travelling by train to Manchester. When the train got to Manchester, what did you do? ---.
5. You needed a taxi. After a few minutes a taxi stopped for you. You opened the door. What did you do then? ---.
6. You were travelling by air. At the end of your flight the plane landed at the airport and stopped. The doors were opened, you took your bag and stood up. What did you do then? ---.
UNIT 126 On/in/at (other uses)
A. On holiday etc.
(be/go) on holiday/on business/on a trip/on a tour/on a cruise etc.:
* Tom's away at the moment. He's on holiday in France. (not' in holiday')
* Did you go to Germany on business or on holiday?
* One day I'd like to go on a world tour.
Note that you can also say: 'go to a place for a holiday/for my holiday(s)':
* Tom has gone to France for a holiday. (not 'for holiday')
* Where are you going for your holidays next summer?
B. Other expressions with on
on television/on the radio:
* I didn't watch the news on television, but I heard it on the radio. on the phone/telephone:
* You can't phone me. I'm not on the phone. (= I haven't got a phone.)
* I've never met her but I've spoken to her on the phone.
(be/go) on strike/on a diet:
* There are no trains today. The railway workers are on strike.
* I've put on a lot of weight. I'll have to go on a diet.
(be) on fire:
* Look! That car is on fire!
on the whole (= in general):
* Sometimes I have problems at work but on the whole I enjoy my job.
on purpose (= intentionally):
* I'm sorry. I didn't mean to annoy you. I didn't do it on purpose.
But: by mistake/by chance/by accident (see Unit 127).
C. Expressions with in
in the rain/in the sun (=sunshine)/in the shade/in the dark in bad weather etc.:
* We sat in the shade. It was too hot to sit in the sun.
* Don't go out in the rain. Wait until it stops.
(write) in ink/in biro/in pencil:
* When you do the exam, you're not allowed to write in pencil.
Also: in words, in figures, in BLOCK LETTERS etc.:
* Please fill in the form in block letters.
(pay) in cash:
* I paid the bill in cash. but I paid by cheque by credit card (see Unit 127).
(be/fall) in love (with somebody):
* Have you ever been in love with anybody?
in (my) opinion:
* In my opinion, the film wasn't very good.
D. At the age of... etc.
We say: at the age of .../at a speed of .../at a temperature of ... etc. For example:
* Jill left school at 16. or ... at the age of 16.
* The train was travelling at 120 miles an hour. or ... at a speed of 120 miles an hour.
* Water boils at 100 degrees celsius.
126.1 Complete the sentences using on + one of the following:
business strike a tour the whole television fire holiday a diet the phone purpose
1. Look! That car is _free!_ Somebody call the fire brigade.
2. It's difficult to contact Sarah because she's not ---.
3. Workers at the factory have gone --- for better pay and conditions.
4. Soon after we arrived, we were taken --- of the city.
5. A: I'm going --- next week.
B: Are you? Where are you going? Somewhere nice?
6. I feel lazy this evening. Is there anything worth watching ---?
7. I'm sorry. It was an accident. I didn't do it ---.
8. George has put on a lot of weight recently. I think he should go ---.
9. Jane's job involves a lot of travelling. She often has to go away ---.
10. A: How did your exams go?
B: Well, there were some difficult questions but --- they were OK.
126.2 Complete the sentences using in + one of the following:
block letters cash my opinion the shade cold weather love pencil
1. He likes to keep warm, so he doesn't go out much ---.
2. Diane never uses a pen. She always writes ---.
3. They fell --- with each other almost immediately and were married in a few weeks.
4. Please write your address clearly, preferably ---.
5. I don't like the sun. I prefer to sit ---.
6. Ann thought the restaurant was OK, but --- it wasn't very good.
7. I hardly ever use a credit card or cheques. I prefer to pay for things ---.
126.3 Put in the correct preposition: on, in, at, or for.
1. Water boils _at_ 100 degrees celsius.
2. When I was 14, I went --- a trip to France organised by my school.
3. I wouldn't like his job. He spends most of his time talking --- the phone.
4. Julia's grandmother died recently --- the age of 79.
5. Can you turn the light on, please? I don't want to sit --- the dark.
6. We didn't go --- holiday last year. We stayed at home.
7. I'm going to Scotland --- a short holiday next month.
8. I won't be here next week. I'll be --- holiday.
9. He got married --- 17, which is rather young to get married.
10. There was an interesting programme --- the radio this morning.
11. my opinion, violent films should not be shown --- television.
12. I wouldn't like to go --- a cruise. I think I'd get bored.
13. I mustn't eat too much. I'm supposed to be --- a diet.
14. In Britain, children start school --- the age of five.
15. There was panic when people realized that the building was --- fire.
16. The Earth travels round the Sun --- a speed of 107,000 kilometres an hour.
17. 'Did you enjoy your holiday?' 'Not every minute, but --- the whole, yes.'
18. When you write a cheque, you have to write the amount --- words and figures.
UNIT 127 By
We use by in a number of different ways:
A. We use by. in many expressions to say bow we do something. For example, you can:
send something by post, do something by hand, pay by cheque/by credit card (but pay in cash)
or something can happen by mistake/by accident/by chance (but do something on purpose):
* Did you pay by cheque or in cash?
* We hadn't arranged to meet. We met by chance.
In these expressions we use by + noun without 'a' or 'the'. We say by chance/by cheque etc. (not 'by a chance/by a cheque').
B. In the same way we use by. to say how somebody travels:
by car/by train/by plane/by boat/by ship/by bus/by bicycle etc.
and by road/by rail/by air/by sea/by underground
* Liz usually goes to work by bus.
* Do you prefer to travel by air or by train?
But we say 'on foot':
* Did you come here by car or on foot?
You cannot use by if you say 'my car'/'the train' 'a taxi' etc. We use by + noun without ,a/the/my' etc. We say:
by car but in my car (not 'by my car')
by train but on the train (not 'by the train')
We use in for cars and taxis:
* They didn't come in their car. They came in a taxi.
We use on for bicycles and public transport (buses, trains etc.):
* We travelled on the 6.45 train.
C. We say 'something is done by somebody/something' (passive-see Units 41-43):
* Have you ever been bitten by a dog?
* The programme was watched by millions of people.
Compare by and with:
* The door must have been opened with a key. (not 'by a key') (= somebody used a key to open it)
* The door must have been opened by somebody with a key.
We say 'a play by Shakespeare', 'a painting by Rembrandt', 'a novel by Tolstoy' etc.
* Have you read any books by Agatha Christie?
D. By also means next to/beside:
* Come and sit by me. (= beside me)
* 'Where's the light switch?' 'By the door.'
E. Note the following use of by ...:
* Clare's salary has just gone up from 1,000 pounds a month to 1,100 pounds. So it has increased by 100 pounds/by ten per cent.
* John and Roger had a race over 100 metres. Roger won by about five metres.
127.1 Complete the sentences using by + one of the following:
chance chance cheque hand ,mistake satellite
1. We hadn't arranged to meet. We met _by chance._
2. I didn't intend to take your umbrella. I took it ---.
3. I didn't put the pullover in the washing machine. I washed it ---.
4, If you haven't got any cash, you can pay ---.
5. The two cities were connected --- for a television programme.
6. I never suspected anything. It was only --- that I found out what had happened.
127.2 Put in by, in or on.
1. Liz usually goes to work _by_ bus.
2. I saw Jane this morning. She was --- the bus.
3. How did you get here? Did you come --- train?
4. How did you get here? Did you come --- the train?
5. I decided not to go --- car. I went --- my bike instead.
6. I didn't feel like walking home, so I came home --- a taxi.
7. Sorry we're late. We missed the bus, so we had to come --- foot.
8. How long does it take to cross the Atlantic --- sea?
127.3 Write three sentences like the examples. Write about a book, a song, a painting, a film etc.
1. _'War and Peace' is a book by Tolstoy._
2. _'Romeo and Juliet' is a play by Shakespeare._
127.4 Put in the correct preposition: by, in, on or with.
1. Who is that man standing --- the window?
2. I managed to put the fire out --- a fire extinguisher.
3. The plane was badly damaged --- lightning.
4. These photographs were taken --- a friend of mine.
5. These photographs were taken --- a very good camera.
6. I don't mind going --- car but I don't want to go your car.
7. Shall we get a taxi or shall we go --- foot?
8. What's that music? I know it's --- Beethoven but I can't remember what it's called.
9. There was a small table --- the bed a lamp and a clock it.
10. Our team lost the game only because of a mistake --- one of our players.
127.5 Complete the sentences using by.
1. Clare's salary was 1,000 pounds a month. Now it is 1,100 pounds.
Her salary _has increased by 100 pounds a month._
2. My daily newspaper used to cost 50 pence. From today it costs 60 pence.
The price has gone up ---.
3. There was an election. Helen got 25 votes and Norman got 23.
Helen won ---.
4. I went to Kate's house to see her but she had gone out five minutes before I arrived.
I missed ---.
UNIT 128 Noun + preposition (reason for, cause of etc.)
A. Noun + for...
cheque FOR (a sum of money):
* They sent me a cheque for 75 pounds.
demand FOR/a need FOR ...:
* The firm closed down because there wasn't enough demand for its product.
* There's no excuse for behaviour like that. There's no need for it.
reason FOR ...:
* The train was late but nobody knew the reason for the delay. (not 'reason of)
B. Noun+ of...
an advantage/a disadvantage OF ...:
* The advantage of living alone is that you can do what you like.
but we usually say: 'there is an advantage in (or to) doing something':
* There are many advantages in (or to) living alone.
a cause OF ...:
* Nobody knows what the cause of the explosion was.
a photograph/a picture/a map/a plan/a drawing (etc.) OF ...:
* She showed me some photographs of her family.
* I had a map of the town, so I was able to find my way around.
C. Noun + in...
an increase/a decrease/a rise/a fall IN (prices etc.):
* There has been an increase in the number of road accidents recently.
* Last year was a bad year for the company. There was a big fall in sales.
D. Noun+ to ...
damage TO ...:
* The accident was my fault, so I had to pay for the damage to the other car.
an invitation TO ... (a party/a wedding etc.):
* Did you get an invitation to the party?
a solution TO (a problem)/a key TO (a door)/an answer TO (a question)/a reply TO (a letter)/a reaction TO ...
* Do you think we'll find a solution to the problem? (not 'a solution of the problem')
* I was surprised at her reaction to my suggestion.
an attitude TO ... (or TOWARDS ...):
* His attitude to his Job is very negative. or His attitude towards his Job.
E. Noun + with .../between ...
a relationship/a connection/contact WITH ...:
* Do you have a good relationship with your parents?
* The police want to question a man in connection with the robbery.
but: a relationship/a connection/contact/a difference BETWEEN two things or people:
* The police believe that there is no connection between the two crimes.
* There are some differences between British and American English.
128.1 Complete the second sentence so that it has the same meaning as the first.
1. What caused the explosion? What was the cause _of the explosion?_
2. We're trying to solve the problem. We're trying to find a solution ---.
3. Sue gets on well with her brother. Sue has a good relationship ---.
4. Prices have gone up a lot. There has been a big increase ---.
5. I don't know how to answer your question. I can't think of an answer ---.
6. I don't think that a new road is necessary. I don't think there is any need ---.
7. The number of people without jobs fell last month. Last month there was a fall ---.
8. Nobody wants to buy shoes like these any more. There is no demand ---.
9. In what way is your job different from mine? What is the difference ---?
128.2 Complete the sentences using one of the following nouns + the correct preposition.
cause connection invitation map reason damage contact key pictures reply
1. On the wall there were some pictures and a _map of_ the world.
2. Thank you for the --- your party next week.
3. Since she left home two years ago, she has had little --- her family.
4. I can't open this door. Have you got a --- the other door?
5. The --- the fire at the hotel last night is still unknown.
6. I wrote to Jim last week, but I still haven't received a --- my letter.
7. The two companies are completely independent. There is no --- them.
8. Jane showed me some old --- the city as it looked 100 years ago.
9. Carol has decided to give up her job. I don't know her --- doing this.
10. It wasn't a bad accident. The --- the car wasn't serious.
128.3 Complete the sentences with the correct preposition.
1. There are some differences _between_ British and American English.
2. Everything can be explained. There's a reason --- everything.
3. If I give you the camera, can you take a photograph --- me?
4. Money isn't the solution --- every problem.
5. There has been an increase --- the amount of traffic using this road.
6. When I opened the envelope, I was delighted to find a cheque --- 500 pounds.
7. The advantage --- having a car is that you don't have to rely on public transport.
8. There are many advantages --- being able to speak a foreign language.
9. When Paul left home, his attitude --- his parents seemed to change.
10. Bill and I used to be good friends but I don't have much contact --- him now.
11. There has been a sharp rise --- the cost of living in the past few years.
12. I'm sorry I haven't written to you for so long. The reason --- this is that I've been ill.
13. What was Emma's reaction --- the news?
14. Ken showed me a photograph --- the house where he lived as a child.
15. The company has rejected the workers' demands --- a rise pay.
16. What was the answer --- question 3 in the test?
17. The fact that Jane was offered a job has no connection --- the fact that her cousin is the managing director.
UNIT 129 Adjective + preposition (1)
A. It was nice of you to ...
nice/kind/good/generous/polite/silly/stupid etc. OF somebody (to do something):
* Thank you. It was very nice/kind of you to help me.
* It is stupid of her to go out without a coat in such cold weather.
but (be) nice/kind/good/generous/polite/friendly/cruel etc. TO somebody:
* They have always been very nice/kind to me. (not 'with me')
* Why were you so unfriendly to Tessa?
B. Adjective + about/with
angry/annoyed/furious ABOUT something
angry/annoyed/furious WITH somebody FOR doing something
* It's stupid to get angry about things that don't matter.
* Are you annoyed with me for being late?
excited/worried/upset/nervous/happy etc. ABOUT something:
* Are you excited about going on holiday next week?
* Carol is upset about not being invited to the party.
delighted/pleased/satisfied/disappointed WITH something: