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UNIT 121 On time/in time, At the end/in the end 3 page

2. You're always asking me --- money. Ask somebody else for a change.

3. I've applied --- a job at the factory. I don't know if I'll get it.

4. If I want a job at the factory, who do I apply ---?

5. I've searched everywhere --- John but I haven't been able to find him.

6. I don't want to talk --- what happened last night. Let's forget it.

7. I don't want to discuss --- what happened last night. Let's forget it.

8. We had an interesting discussion --- the problem but we didn't reach a decision.

9. We discussed --- the problem but we didn't reach a decision.

10. I don't want to go out yet. I'm waiting --- the post to arrive.

11. Keith and Sonia are touring Europe. They're in Rome at the moment, but tomorrow they leave --- Venice.

12. The roof of the house is in very bad condition. I think we ought to do something --- it.

13. We waited --- Jim for half an hour but he never came.

14. Tomorrow morning I have to catch a plane. I'm leaving my house --- the airport at 7.30.

132.2 Complete the sentences with one of the following verbs (in the correct form) + preposition:

apply ask do leave look search talk wait

1. Police are _searching for_ the man who escaped from prison.

2. We're still --- a reply to our letter. We haven't heard anything yet.

3. George likes his job but he doesn't --- it much.

4. When I'd finished my meal, I --- the waiter . the bill.

5. Kate is unemployed. She has --- several jobs but she hasn't had any luck.

6. If something is wrong, why don't you --- something it?

7. Linda's car is very old but it's in excellent condition. She --- it well.

8. Diane is from Boston but now she lives in Paris. She --- Boston --- Paris

when she was 19.

132.3 Put in the correct preposition after care. If no preposition is needed, leave the space empty (-)

1. He's very selfish. He doesn't care _about_ other people.

2. Are you hungry? Would you care --- something to eat?

3. She doesn't care --- the examination. She's not worried whether she passes or falls.

4. Please let me borrow your camera. I promise I'll take good care --- it.

5. 'Do you like this coat?' 'Not really. I don't care --- the colour.'

6. Don't worry about arranging our holiday. I'll take care --- that.

7. I want to have a good holiday. I don't care --- the cost.

8. I want to have a good holiday. I don't care --- how much it costs.

132.4 Complete the sentences with look for or look after. Use the correct form of look.

1. I _looked for_ my keys but I couldn't find them anywhere.

2. Kate is --- a job. I hope she finds one soon.

3. Who --- you when you were ill?

4. I'm --- Elizabeth. Have you seen her?

5. All the car parks were full, so we had to --- somewhere to park.

6. A baby-sitter is somebody who --- other people's children.

 

 

UNIT 133 Verb + preposition (3) about and of

Some verbs can be followed by about or of, usually with a difference of meaning:

A. dream ABOUT ...:

* I dreamt about you last night. (when I was asleep)

dream OF being something/doing something (= imagine):



* I often dream of being rich.

* 'Don't tell anyone what I said.' 'No, I wouldn't dream of it.' (=I would never do it)

B. hear ABOUT ... (= be told about something):

* Did you hear about the fight in the club on Saturday night?

hear OF ... (= know that somebody/something exists):

* 'Who is Tom Madely?' 'I've no idea. I've never heard of him.' (not 'heard from him')

Also: hear FROM ... (= receive a letter or phone call from somebody):

* 'Have you heard from Jane recently?' 'Yes, I got a letter from her a few days ago.'

C. think ABOUT ... and think OF ...

When you think ABOUT something, you consider it, you concentrate your mind on it:

* You look serious. What are you thinking about?

* 'Will you lend me the money?' 'I'll think about it.'

When you think OF something, the idea comes to your mind:

* He told me his name but I can't think of it now. (not 'think about it')

* That's a good idea. Why didn't I think of that? (not 'think about that')

We also use think of when we ask or give an opinion:

* 'What did you think of the film?' 'I didn't think much of it.'

The difference is sometimes very small. Often you can use of or about:

* When I'm alone, I often think of (or about) you.

You can say 'think of or think about doing something' (for possible future actions):

* My sister is thinking of (or about) going to Canada. (= she is considering it)

D. remind somebody ABOUT ... (= tell somebody not to forget):

* I'm glad you reminded me about the meeting. I had completely forgotten it.

remind somebody OF ... (= cause somebody to remember):

* This house reminds me of the one I lived in when I was a child.

* Look at this photograph of Richard. Who does he remind you of?

E. complain (TO somebody) ABOUT ... (= say that you are not satisfied):

* We complained to the manager of the restaurant about the food.

complain OF a pain, an illness etc. (= say that you have a pain etc.):

* We called the doctor because George was complaining of a pain in his stomach.

F. warn somebody OF/ABOUT a danger, something bad which might happen:

* Everybody has been warned of/about the dangers of smoking.

warn somebody ABOUT somebody/something which is dangerous, unusual etc.:

* I knew he was a strange person. I had been warned about him. (not 'warned of him')

* Vicky warned us about the traffic. She said it would be bad.

 

 

EXERCISES

133.1 Put in the correct preposition.

1. Did you hear _about_ what happened at the party on Saturday?

2. '1 had a strange dream last night.' 'Did you? What did you dream ---?

3. Our neighbours complained --- us --- the noise we made last night.

4. Ken was complaining --- pains in his chest, so he went to the doctor.

5. I love this music. It reminds me --- a warm day in spring.

6. He loves his job. He thinks --- his job all the time, he dreams --- it, he talks --- it and I'm fed up with hearing --- it.

7. I tried to remember the name of the book but I couldn't think --- it.

8. Janet warned me --- the water. She said it wasn't safe to drink.

9. We warned our children --- the dangers of playing in the street.

133.2 Complete the sentences using one of the following verbs (in the correct form) + the correct preposition:

complain dream hear remind remind remind think think warn

1. That's a good idea. Why didn't I _think of_ that?

2. Bill is never satisfied. He is always --- something.

3. I can't make a decision yet. I need time to --- your proposal.

4. Before you go into the house, I must --- you the dog. He is very aggressive sometimes, so be careful.

5. She's not a well-known singer. Not many people have --- her.

6. A: You wouldn't go away without telling me, would you?

B: Of course not. I wouldn't --- it.

7. I would have forgotten my appointment if Jane hadn't --- me --- it.

8. Do you see that man over there? Does he --- you --- anybody you know?

133.3 Complete the sentences using bear or heard + the correct preposition (about/of/from).

1. I've never _hear of_ Tom Madely. Who is he?

2. 'Did you --- the accident last night?' 'Yes, Vicky told me.'

3. Jill used to write to me quite often but I haven't --- her for ages now.

4. A: Have you --- a writer called William Hudson?

B: No, I don't think so. What sort of writer is he?

5. Thank you for your letter. It was good to --- you again.

6. 'Do you want to --- our holiday?' 'Not now. Tell me later.'

7. I live in a very small town in the north of England. You've probably never --- it.

133.4 Complete the sentences using think about or think of. Use the correct form of think.

1. You look serious. What are you _thinking about?_

2. I like to have time to make decisions. I like to --- things carefully.

3. He's a very selfish person. He only --- himself.

4. I don't know what to get Ann for her birthday. Can you --- anything?

5. A: I've finished reading the book you lent me.

B: Have you? What did you --- it? Did you like it?

6. We're --- going out for a meal this evening. Would you like to come?

7. I don't really want to go out with Ian tonight. I'll have to --- an excuse.

8. Carol is rather homesick. She's always --- her family back home.

9. When I was offered the job, I didn't accept immediately. I went away and --- it for a while. In the end I decided to take the job.

10. I don't --- much --- this coffee. It's like water.

 

 

UNIT 134 Verb + preposition (4) of/for/from/on

A. Verb + of

accuse/suspect somebody OF ...:

* Sue accused me of being selfish.

*Three students were suspected of cheating in the examination.

approve OF ...:

* His parents don't approve of what he does, but they can't stop him.

die OF (an illness):

* 'What did he die of?' 'A heart attack.'

consist OF ...:

* We had an enormous meal. It consisted of seven courses.

B. Verb + for

pay (somebody) FOR ...:

* I didn't have enough money to pay (the waiter) for the meal. (not 'pay the meal')

but 'pay a bill/a fine/a tax/a fare/rent/a sum of money etc. (no preposition):

* I didn't have enough money to pay my telephone bill.

thank/forgive somebody FOR ...:

* I'll never forgive them for what they did.

apologize (to somebody) FOR ...:

* When I realized I was wrong, I apologized (to them) for my mistake.

blame somebody/something FOR ...:

* Everybody blamed me for the accident.

also: 'somebody is to blame for ...':

* Everybody said that I was to blame for the accident.

also: blame something ON ...:

* Everybody blamed the accident on me.

C. Verb + from

Suffer FROM (an illness etc.):

* The number of people suffering from heart disease has increased.

protect somebody/something FROM (or AGAINST) ...:

* Sun oil can protect the skin from the sun. (or . against the sun.)

D. Verb + on

depend ON.../rely ON ...:

* 'What time will you arrive?' 'I don't know. It depends on the traffic.'

* You can rely on Jill. She always keeps her promises.

You can use depend + when/where/how etc. (question words) with or without on:

* 'Are you going to buy it?' 'It depends how much it is.' (or depends on how much) live ON (money/food):

* George's salary is very low. It isn't enough to live on.

congratulate (someone) ON .../compliment (somebody) ON ...

* I congratulated her on her success0 the exam.

 

 

EXERCISES

134.1 Complete the second sentence so that it means the same as the first.

1. Sue said I was selfish. Sue accused me _of being selfish._

2. The misunderstanding was my fault, so I apologized.

I apologized ---.

3. She won the tournament, so I congratulated her.

I congratulated her ---.

4. He has enemies but he has a bodyguard to protect him.

He has a bodyguard to protect him ---.

5. There are 11 players in a football team.

A football team consists ---.

6. She eats only bread and eggs. She lives ---.

Complete the second sentence using for or on. (These sentences all have blame.)

7. Kay said that what happened was Jim's fault. Kay blamed Jim _for what happened._

8. You always say everything is my fault. You always blame me ---.

9. Do you think the economic crisis is the fault of the government?

Do you blame the government ---.

10. I think the increase in violent crime is because of television.

I blame the increase in ---.

Now rewrite sentences 9 and 10 using ... to blame for ...

11. (9) Do you think the government ---.

12. (10) I think that ---.

134.2 Complete the sentences using one of the following verbs (in the correct form) + the correct preposition:

accuse apologize approve congratulate depend live pay

1. His parents don't _approve of_ what he does, but they can't stop him.

2. When you went to the theatre with Paul, who --- the tickets?

3. It's not very pleasant when you are --- something you didn't do.

4. 'Are you playing tennis tomorrow?' 'I hope so. It --- the weather.'

5. Things are very cheap there. You can --- very little money.

6. When I saw Dave, I --- him --- passing his driving test.

7. You were very rude to Fiona. Don't you think you should --- her?

134.3 Put in the correct preposition. If no preposition is necessary, leave the space empty (-)

1. Three students were suspected _of_ cheating in the examination.

2. Sally is often not well. She suffers --- very bad headaches.

3. You know that you can rely --- me if you ever need any help.

4. It is terrible that some people are dying --- hunger while others eat too much.

5. Are you going to apologize --- what you did?

6. The accident was my fault, so I had to pay --- the damage.

7. I didn't have enough money to pay --- the bill.

8. I complimented her --- her English. She spoke fluently and made very few mistakes.

9. She hasn't got a job. She depends --- her parents for money.

10. I don't know whether I'll go out tonight. It depends --- how I feel.

11. They wore warm clothes to protect themselves --- the cold.

12. The apartment consists --- three rooms, a kitchen and bathroom.

 

 

UNIT 135 Verb + preposition (5) in/into/with/to/on

A. Verb + in

believe IN ...

* Do you believe in God? (=do you believe that God exists?)

* I believe in saying what I think. (=I believe it is right to say what I think)

specialize IN ...

* Helen is a lawyer. She specializes in company law.

succeed IN ...

* I hope you succeed in finding the job you want.

B. Verb +into

break INTO ...

* Our house was broken into a few days ago but nothing was stolen.

crash/drive/bump/run INTO ...

* He lost control of the car and crashed into a wall.

divide/cut/split something INTO (two or more parts):

* The book is divided into three parts.

* Cut the meat into small pieces before frying it.

translate (a book etc.) FROM one language INTO another:

* George Orwell's books have been translated into many languages.

C. Verb + with

collide WITH ...

* There was an accident this morning. A bus collided with a car. (but 'crashed into') fill something WITH. (but full of.-see Unit 130B):

* Take this saucepan and fill it with water.

provide/supply somebody WITH...

* The school provides all its students with books.

D. Verb + to

happen TO ...:

* What happened to that gold watch you used to have? (= where is it now?)

prefer one thing/person TO another:

* I prefer tea to coffee.

E. Verb + on

concentrate ON ...:

* Don't look out of the window. Concentrate on your work.

insist ON ...:

* I wanted to go alone but they insisted on coming with me.

spend (money) ON ...:

* How much money do you spend on food each week?

 

 

EXERCISES

135.1 Complete the second sentence so that it means the same as the first.

1. There was a collision between a bus and a car. A bus collided _with a car._

2. I don't mind big cities but I prefer small towns.

I prefer ---.

3. I got all the information I needed from Jill.

Jill provided me ---.

4. This morning I bought a pair of shoes which cost -'60.

This morning I spent ---.

135.2 Complete the sentences using one of the following verbs (in the correct form) + the correct preposition:

believe concentrate divide drive fill happen insist succeed

1. I wanted to go alone but Sue _insisted on_ coming with me.

2. I haven't seen Harry for ages. I wonder what has --- him.

3. I was driving along when the car in front of me stopped suddenly. Unfortunately, I couldn't stop in time and --- the back of it.

4. It's a very large house. It's --- four flats.

5. I don't --- ghosts. I think people only imagine that they see them.

6. Steve gave me an empty bucket and told me to --- it --- water.

7. Don't try and do two things together --- one thing at a time.

8. It wasn't easy but in the end we --- finding a solution to the problem.

135.3 Put in the correct preposition.

1. The school provides all its students _with_ books.

2. A strange thing happened --- me a few days ago.

3. Mark decided to give up sport so that he could concentrate --- his studies.

4. I don't believe --- working very hard. It's not worth it.

5. My present job isn't wonderful, but I prefer it --- what I did before.

6. I hope you succeed --- getting what you want.

7. As I was coming out of the room, I collided --- somebody who was coming in.

8. There was an awful noise as the car crashed --- a tree.

9. Jim is a photographer. He specializes --- sports photography.

10. Do you spend much money --- clothes?

11. The country is divided --- six regions.

12. I prefer travelling by train --- driving. It's much more pleasant.

13. Somebody broke --- my car and stole the radio.

14. I felt quite cold but Peter insisted --- having the window open.

15. Some words are difficult to translate --- one language another.

16. What happened --- the money I lent you? What did you spend it?

17. The teacher decided to split the class --- four groups.

18. I filled the tank but unfortunately I filled it --- the wrong kind of petrol.

135.4 Use your own ideas to complete these sentences. Use a preposition.

1. I wanted to go out alone but my friend insisted _on coming with me._

2. I spend quite a lot of money ---.

3. I saw the accident. The car crashed ---.

4. Sarah prefers basketball ---.

5. Shakespeare's plays have been translated ---.

 

 

UNIT 136 Phrasal verbs (getup/ breakdown /fill in etc.)

A. We often use verbs with the following words:

in out on off up down away back round through about along over forward by

So you can say put out/get on/take off/run away etc. These verbs are phrasal verbs. We often use out/off/up etc. with verbs of movement. For example:

get on: * The bus was full. We couldn't get on.

drive off: * A woman got into the car and drove off.

come back: * Sally is leaving tomorrow and coming back on Saturday.

turn round: * When I touched him on the shoulder, he turned round.

But often the second word (out/off/up etc.) gives a special meaning to the verb. For example:

break down: * Sorry I'm late. The car broke down. (= the engine stopped working)

look out: * Look out! There's a car coming. (= be careful)

take off: * It was my first flight. I was nervous as the plane took off. (= went into the air)

get up: * I was very tired this morning. I couldn't get up. (= get out of bed)

get on: * How was the exam? How did you get on? (= how did you do?)

get by: * My French isn't very good but it's enough to get by. (= to manage)

B. Sometimes a phrasal verb is followed by a preposition. For example:

* Why did you run away from me?

* You're walking too fast. I can't keep up with you.

* Are you looking forward to your holiday?

 

* Jack is trying to cut down on smoking. (=reduce smoking)

C. Sometimes a phrasal verb has an object. Usually there are two possible positions for the object. So you can say:

I turned off _the light._(object) or I turned the light off.

If the object is a pronoun (it/them/me/him etc.), only one position is possible:

I turned it off. (not 'I turned off it')

Some more examples:

* Could you fill in this form?

* Could you fill this form in?

but They gave me a form and told me to fill it in. (not 'fill in it')

* The police got into the house by breaking down the door.

* The police got into the house by breaking the door down.

but The door wasn't locked. Why did the police break it down? (not 'break down it')

* I think I'll throw away these newspapers.

* I think I'll throw these newspapers away.

but Do you want these newspapers or shall I throw them away? (not 'throw away them')

* Don't wake up the baby.

* Don't wake the baby up.

but The baby is asleep. Don't wake her up. (not 'wake up her')

 

 

EXERCISES

136.1 Complete the sentences using one of these phrasal verbs (in the correct form):

break down

drop out (= stop taking part in something)

clear up (= become brighter-for weather)

move in (= start living in a house etc.)

close down (= go out of business)

show off (= show how clever you are)

doze off (= fall asleep)

turn up (= appear/arrive)

1. Sorry I'm late. The car _broke down_ on the way here.

2. I arranged to meet Jane after work last night but she didn't ---.

3. 'We've bought a new house.' 'Oh, have you? When are you ---?'

4. There used to be a shop at the end of the street but it --- a year ago.

5. I ran in a marathon last week but I wasn't fit enough. I --- after 15 kilometres.

6. We all know how wonderful you are. There's no need to ---.

7. I was very tired. I sat in an armchair and ---.

8. The weather is horrible at the moment, isn't it? I hope it --- later.

136.2 Complete the sentences using a word from List A and a word from List B. You need to use some words more than once.

A: away back forward on out up,

B: at of to with

1. You're walking too fast. I can't keep _up with_ you.

2. My holidays are nearly over. Next week I'll be --- work.

3. We've nearly run --- money. We've got very little left.

4. Martin isn't very happy in his job because he doesn't get --- his boss.

5. I love to look --- the stars in the sky at night.

6. Are you looking --- the party next week?

7. There was a bank robbery last week. The robbers got --- 30,000 pounds.

136.3 Complete the sentences using one of these verbs (in the correct form) + it/them/her/you:

cross out give away, make up, turn down (= refuse) fill in, give back, show round see off (= see somebody leave)

1. They gave me a form and told me to _fill in it._

2. If you make a mistake on the form, just ---.

3. The story she told you wasn't true. She ---.

4. I don't like people who borrow things and don't ---.

 

5. Katy is going to Australia tomorrow. I'm going to the airport to ---.

6. I had a lot of books that I didn't want to keep, so I --- to a friend.

7. Would you like to see the factory? Would you like me to ---?

8. Sue was offered a job as a translator but she ---.

136.4 Complete the sentences. Use the word in brackets (away/up etc.) with one of the following:

that box your cigarette a jacket the television a word it it them him

1. Don't throw _away that box(or that away)._ I want to keep it. (away)

2. 'Do you want this box?' 'No, you can throw _it away._' (away)

3. Shhh! The children are asleep. Don't wake ---. (up)

4. We can turn --- Nobody is watching it. (off)

5. Tom got very angry and started shouting. I tried to calm --- (down)

6. I tried --- in the shop but I didn't buy it. (on)

7. Please put --- This is a no-smoking area. (out)

8. It was only a small fire. I was able to put --- quite easily. (out)

9. You can look --- in a dictionary if you don't know what it means. (up)

10. You're doing very well. Keep ---! (up)

 

APPENDIX 1

Regular and irregular verbs

1.1 Regular verbs

If a verb is regular, the past simple and past participle end in ~ed. For example;

infinitive: clean, finish, use, paint, stop, carry

past simple, past participle: cleaned, finished, used, painted, stopped, carried

For spelling rules, see Appendix 6.

For the past simple (I cleaned/they finished/she carried etc.), see Unit 5.

We use the past participle to make the perfect tenses and for all the passive forms.

Perfect tenses (have/has/had cleaned):

* I have cleaned the windows. (present perfect - see Units 7-8)

* They were still working. They hadn't finished. (past perfect - see Unit 15)

Passive (is cleaned/was cleaned etc.):

* He was carried out of the room. (past simple passive) see Units 41-43

* This gate has just been painted. (present perfect passive) J

1.2 Irregular verbs

When the past simple/past participle do not end in ~ed (for example, I saw/I have seen), the verb is irregular.

With some irregular verbs, all three forms (infinitive, past simple and past participle) are the same. For example, hit:

* Don't hit me. (infinitive)

* Somebody hit me as I came into the room. (past simple)

* I've never hit anybody in my life. (past participle-present perfect)

* George was hit on the head by a stone. (past participle-passive)

With other irregular verbs, the past simple is the same as the past participle (but different from the infinitive). For example, tell -> told:

* Can you tell me what to do? (infinitive)

* She told me to come back the next day. (past simple)

* Have you told anybody about your new job? (past participle-present perfect)

* I was told to come back the next day. (past participle-passive)

With other irregular verbs, all three forms are different. For example, wake -> woke/woken:

* I'll wake you up. (infinitive)

* I woke up in the middle of the night. (past simple)

* The baby has woken up. (past participle - present perfect)

* I was woken up by a loud noise. (past participle - passive)

1.3 The following verbs can be regular or irregular:

burn -> burned or burnt

dream -> dreamed or dreamt [dremt]

lean -> leaned or leant [lent]

learn -> learned or learnt

smell -> smelled or smelt

spell -> spelled or spelt

spill -> spilled or spilt

spoil -> spoiled or spoilt

So you can say:

* I leant out of the window. or I leaned out of the window.

* The dinner has been spoilt. or The dinner has been spoiled.

In British English the irregular form (burnt/learnt etc.) is more usual.

For American English, see Appendix 7.

 

1.4 List of irregular verbs

infinitive past simple past participle

be was/were been

beat beat beaten

become became become

begin began begun

bend bent bent

bet bet bet

bite bit bitten

blow blew blown

break broke broken

bring brought brought

broadcast broadcast broadcast

build built built

burst burst burst

buy bought bought

catch caught caught

choose chose chosen

come came come

cost cost cost

creep crept crept

cut cut cut

deal dealt dealt

dig dug dug

do did done

draw draw drawn

drink drank drunk

drive drove driven

eat ate eaten

fall fell fallen

feed fed fed

feel felt felt

fight fought fought

find found found

flee fled fled

fly flew flown

forbid forbade forbidden

forget forgot forgotten

forgive forgave forgiven

freeze froze frozen

get got got

give gave given

go went gone

grow grew grown

hang hung hung

have had had

hear heard heard

hide hid hidden

hit hit hit

hold held held

hurt hurt hurt

keep kept kept

kneel knelt knelt

know knew known

lay laid laid

lead led led

lend lent lent

let let let

lie lay lain

light lit lit

lose lost lost

make made made

mean meant meant

meet met met

pay paid paid

put put put

read read read

ride rode ridden

ring rang rung

rise rose risen

run ran run


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