UNIT 121 On time/in time, At the end/in the end 2 page
12. I wouldn't like to go --- a cruise. I think I'd get bored.
13. I mustn't eat too much. I'm supposed to be --- a diet.
14. In Britain, children start school --- the age of five.
15. There was panic when people realized that the building was --- fire.
16. The Earth travels round the Sun --- a speed of 107,000 kilometres an hour.
17. 'Did you enjoy your holiday?' 'Not every minute, but --- the whole, yes.'
18. When you write a cheque, you have to write the amount --- words and figures.
UNIT 127 By
We use by in a number of different ways:
A. We use by. in many expressions to say bow we do something. For example, you can:
send something by post, do something by hand, pay by cheque/by credit card (but pay in cash)
or something can happen by mistake/by accident/by chance (but do something on purpose):
* Did you pay by cheque or in cash?
* We hadn't arranged to meet. We met by chance.
In these expressions we use by + noun without 'a' or 'the'. We say by chance/by cheque etc. (not 'by a chance/by a cheque').
B. In the same way we use by. to say how somebody travels:
by car/by train/by plane/by boat/by ship/by bus/by bicycle etc.
and by road/by rail/by air/by sea/by underground
* Liz usually goes to work by bus.
* Do you prefer to travel by air or by train?
But we say 'on foot':
* Did you come here by car or on foot?
You cannot use by if you say 'my car'/'the train' 'a taxi' etc. We use by + noun without ,a/the/my' etc. We say:
by car but in my car (not 'by my car')
by train but on the train (not 'by the train')
We use in for cars and taxis:
* They didn't come in their car. They came in a taxi.
We use on for bicycles and public transport (buses, trains etc.):
* We travelled on the 6.45 train.
C. We say 'something is done by somebody/something' (passive-see Units 41-43):
* Have you ever been bitten by a dog?
* The programme was watched by millions of people.
Compare by and with:
* The door must have been opened with a key. (not 'by a key') (= somebody used a key to open it)
* The door must have been opened by somebody with a key.
We say 'a play by Shakespeare', 'a painting by Rembrandt', 'a novel by Tolstoy' etc.
* Have you read any books by Agatha Christie?
D. By also means next to/beside:
* Come and sit by me. (= beside me)
* 'Where's the light switch?' 'By the door.'
E. Note the following use of by ...:
* Clare's salary has just gone up from 1,000 pounds a month to 1,100 pounds. So it has increased by 100 pounds/by ten per cent.
* John and Roger had a race over 100 metres. Roger won by about five metres.
127.1 Complete the sentences using by + one of the following:
chance chance cheque hand ,mistake satellite
1. We hadn't arranged to meet. We met _by chance._
2. I didn't intend to take your umbrella. I took it ---.
3. I didn't put the pullover in the washing machine. I washed it ---.
4, If you haven't got any cash, you can pay ---.
5. The two cities were connected --- for a television programme.
6. I never suspected anything. It was only --- that I found out what had happened.
127.2 Put in by, in or on.
1. Liz usually goes to work _by_ bus.
2. I saw Jane this morning. She was --- the bus.
3. How did you get here? Did you come --- train?
4. How did you get here? Did you come --- the train?
5. I decided not to go --- car. I went --- my bike instead.
6. I didn't feel like walking home, so I came home --- a taxi.
7. Sorry we're late. We missed the bus, so we had to come --- foot.
8. How long does it take to cross the Atlantic --- sea?
127.3 Write three sentences like the examples. Write about a book, a song, a painting, a film etc.
1. _'War and Peace' is a book by Tolstoy._
2. _'Romeo and Juliet' is a play by Shakespeare._
127.4 Put in the correct preposition: by, in, on or with.
1. Who is that man standing --- the window?
2. I managed to put the fire out --- a fire extinguisher.
3. The plane was badly damaged --- lightning.
4. These photographs were taken --- a friend of mine.
5. These photographs were taken --- a very good camera.
6. I don't mind going --- car but I don't want to go your car.
7. Shall we get a taxi or shall we go --- foot?
8. What's that music? I know it's --- Beethoven but I can't remember what it's called.
9. There was a small table --- the bed a lamp and a clock it.
10. Our team lost the game only because of a mistake --- one of our players.
127.5 Complete the sentences using by.
1. Clare's salary was 1,000 pounds a month. Now it is 1,100 pounds.
Her salary _has increased by 100 pounds a month._
2. My daily newspaper used to cost 50 pence. From today it costs 60 pence.
The price has gone up ---.
3. There was an election. Helen got 25 votes and Norman got 23.
Helen won ---.
4. I went to Kate's house to see her but she had gone out five minutes before I arrived.
I missed ---.
UNIT 128 Noun + preposition (reason for, cause of etc.)
A. Noun + for...
cheque FOR (a sum of money):
* They sent me a cheque for 75 pounds.
demand FOR/a need FOR ...:
* The firm closed down because there wasn't enough demand for its product.
* There's no excuse for behaviour like that. There's no need for it.
reason FOR ...:
* The train was late but nobody knew the reason for the delay. (not 'reason of)
B. Noun+ of...
an advantage/a disadvantage OF ...:
* The advantage of living alone is that you can do what you like.
but we usually say: 'there is an advantage in (or to) doing something':
* There are many advantages in (or to) living alone.
a cause OF ...:
* Nobody knows what the cause of the explosion was.
a photograph/a picture/a map/a plan/a drawing (etc.) OF ...:
* She showed me some photographs of her family.
* I had a map of the town, so I was able to find my way around.
C. Noun + in...
an increase/a decrease/a rise/a fall IN (prices etc.):
* There has been an increase in the number of road accidents recently.
* Last year was a bad year for the company. There was a big fall in sales.
D. Noun+ to ...
damage TO ...:
* The accident was my fault, so I had to pay for the damage to the other car.
an invitation TO ... (a party/a wedding etc.):
* Did you get an invitation to the party?
a solution TO (a problem)/a key TO (a door)/an answer TO (a question)/a reply TO (a letter)/a reaction TO ...
* Do you think we'll find a solution to the problem? (not 'a solution of the problem')
* I was surprised at her reaction to my suggestion.
an attitude TO ... (or TOWARDS ...):
* His attitude to his Job is very negative. or His attitude towards his Job.
E. Noun + with .../between ...
a relationship/a connection/contact WITH ...:
* Do you have a good relationship with your parents?
* The police want to question a man in connection with the robbery.
but: a relationship/a connection/contact/a difference BETWEEN two things or people:
* The police believe that there is no connection between the two crimes.
* There are some differences between British and American English.
128.1 Complete the second sentence so that it has the same meaning as the first.
1. What caused the explosion? What was the cause _of the explosion?_
2. We're trying to solve the problem. We're trying to find a solution ---.
3. Sue gets on well with her brother. Sue has a good relationship ---.
4. Prices have gone up a lot. There has been a big increase ---.
5. I don't know how to answer your question. I can't think of an answer ---.
6. I don't think that a new road is necessary. I don't think there is any need ---.
7. The number of people without jobs fell last month. Last month there was a fall ---.
8. Nobody wants to buy shoes like these any more. There is no demand ---.
9. In what way is your job different from mine? What is the difference ---?
128.2 Complete the sentences using one of the following nouns + the correct preposition.
cause connection invitation map reason damage contact key pictures reply
1. On the wall there were some pictures and a _map of_ the world.
2. Thank you for the --- your party next week.
3. Since she left home two years ago, she has had little --- her family.
4. I can't open this door. Have you got a --- the other door?
5. The --- the fire at the hotel last night is still unknown.
6. I wrote to Jim last week, but I still haven't received a --- my letter.
7. The two companies are completely independent. There is no --- them.
8. Jane showed me some old --- the city as it looked 100 years ago.
9. Carol has decided to give up her job. I don't know her --- doing this.
10. It wasn't a bad accident. The --- the car wasn't serious.
128.3 Complete the sentences with the correct preposition.
1. There are some differences _between_ British and American English.
2. Everything can be explained. There's a reason --- everything.
3. If I give you the camera, can you take a photograph --- me?
4. Money isn't the solution --- every problem.
5. There has been an increase --- the amount of traffic using this road.
6. When I opened the envelope, I was delighted to find a cheque --- 500 pounds.
7. The advantage --- having a car is that you don't have to rely on public transport.
8. There are many advantages --- being able to speak a foreign language.
9. When Paul left home, his attitude --- his parents seemed to change.
10. Bill and I used to be good friends but I don't have much contact --- him now.
11. There has been a sharp rise --- the cost of living in the past few years.
12. I'm sorry I haven't written to you for so long. The reason --- this is that I've been ill.
13. What was Emma's reaction --- the news?
14. Ken showed me a photograph --- the house where he lived as a child.
15. The company has rejected the workers' demands --- a rise pay.
16. What was the answer --- question 3 in the test?
17. The fact that Jane was offered a job has no connection --- the fact that her cousin is the managing director.
UNIT 129 Adjective + preposition (1)
A. It was nice of you to ...
nice/kind/good/generous/polite/silly/stupid etc. OF somebody (to do something):
* Thank you. It was very nice/kind of you to help me.
* It is stupid of her to go out without a coat in such cold weather.
but (be) nice/kind/good/generous/polite/friendly/cruel etc. TO somebody:
* They have always been very nice/kind to me. (not 'with me')
* Why were you so unfriendly to Tessa?
B. Adjective + about/with
angry/annoyed/furious ABOUT something
angry/annoyed/furious WITH somebody FOR doing something
* It's stupid to get angry about things that don't matter.
* Are you annoyed with me for being late?
excited/worried/upset/nervous/happy etc. ABOUT something:
* Are you excited about going on holiday next week?
* Carol is upset about not being invited to the party.
delighted/pleased/satisfied/disappointed WITH something:
* I was delighted with the present you gave me.
* Were you disappointed with your exam results?]
C. Adjective + at/by/with
surprised/shocked/amazed/astonished AT/BY something:
* Everybody was surprised at (or by) the news.
* I hope you weren't shocked by (or at) what I said.
impressed WITH/BY somebody/something:
* I'm very impressed with (or by) her English. It's very good.
fed up/bored WITH something:
* I don't enjoy my job any more. I'm fed up with it./I'm bored with it.]
D. sorry about/for
sorry ABOUT something:
* I'm sorry a out t e noise last night. We were having a party.
but usually sorry FOR doing something:
* I'm sorry for shouting at you yesterday.
You can also say 'I'm sorry I (did something)':
* I'm sorry I shouted at you yesterday.
We say 'to feel/to be sorry FOR somebody':
* I feel sorry for George. He has a lot of problems.]
129.1 Write sentences using nice of ..., kind of ... etc.
1. I went out in the cold without a coat.
2. Sue offered to drive me to the airport.
3. I needed money and Ian gave me some.
4. They didn't invite us to their party.
5. Can I help you with your luggage?
6. Kevin didn't thank me for the present.
7. They've had an argument and now they refuse to speak to each other.]
(silly) _That was silly of you._
(nice) That was --- her.
(generous) That ---.
(not very nice) That wasn't ---.
(very kind) --- you.
(not very polite) ---.
(a bit childish) ---.
129.2 Complete the sentences using one of the following adjectives + the correct preposition:
annoyed annoyed astonished bored excited impressed kind sorry
1. We're all _excited about_ going on holiday next week.
2. Thank you for all your help. You've been very --- me.
3. I wouldn't like to be in her position. I feel --- her.
4. What have I done wrong? Why are you --- me?
5. Why do you always get so --- little things?
6. I wasn't very --- the service in the restaurant. We had to wait ages before our food arrived.
7. John isn't happy at college. He says he's --- the course he's doing.
8. I had never seen so many people before. I was --- the crowds.
129.3 Put in the correct preposition.
1. I was delighted _with_ the present you gave me.
2. It was very nice --- you to do my shopping for me. Thank you very much.
3. Why are you always so rude --- your parents? Can't you be nice them?
4. It was a bit careless --- you to leave the door unlocked when you went out.
5. They didn't reply to our letter, which wasn't very polite --- them.
6. We always have the same food every day. I'm fed up --- it.
7. I can't understand people who are cruel --- animals.
8. We enjoyed our holiday, but we were a bit disappointed --- the hotel.
9. I was surprised --- the way he behaved. It was completely out of character.
10. I've been trying to learn Spanish but I'm not very satisfied --- my progress.
11. Linda doesn't look very well. I'm worried --- her.
12. Are you angry --- what happened?
13. I'm sorry --- what I said. I hope you're not angry --- me.
14. The people next door are furious --- us making so much noise last night.
15. Jill starts her new job next week. She's quite excited --- it.
16. I'm sorry --- the smell of paint in this room. I've just decorated it.
17. I was shocked --- what I saw. I'd never seen anything like it before.
18. The man we interviewed for the job was intelligent but we weren't very impressed --- his appearance.
19. Are you still upset --- what I said to you yesterday?
20. He said he was sorry --- the situation but there was nothing he could do.
21. I felt sorry --- the children when we went on holiday. It rained every day and they had to spend most of the time indoors.
UNIT 130 Adjective + preposition (2)
A. Adjective + of (1)
afraid/frightened/terrified/scared OF ...:
* 'Are you afraid of dogs?' 'Yes, I'm terrified of them.'
fond/proud/ashamed/jealous/envious OF ....:
* Why are you always so jealous of other people?
suspicious/critical/tolerant OF ...:
* He didn't trust me. He was suspicious of my intentions.
B. Adjective + of (2)
aware/conscious OF ...
* 'Did you know he was married?' 'No, I wasn't aware of that.'
capable/incapable OF ...
* I'm sure you are capable of passing the examination.
full OF./short OF ...
* The letter I wrote was full of mistakes. (not 'full with')
* I'm a bit short of money. Can you lend me some?
typical OF ...
* He's late again. It's typical of him to keep everybody waiting.
tired OF ...:
* Come on, let's go! I'm tired of waiting. (= I've had enough of waiting)
certain/sure OF or ABOUT ...:
* I think she's arriving this evening but I'm not sure of that. (or . sure about that.)
C. Adjective+ at/ to/ from/ in/ on/with /for
good/bad/excellent/brilliant/hopeless (etc.) AT ...:
* I'm not very good at repairing things. (not 'good in repairing things')
married/engaged TO ...:
* Linda is married to an American. (not 'married with')
but * Linda is married with three children. she is married and has three children)
similar TO ...:
* Your writing is similar to mine.
different FROM (or TO) ...:
* The film was different from what I'd expected. (or ... different to what I'd expected.)
interested IN ...:
* Are you interested in art?
keen ON ...:
* We stayed at home because Cathy wasn't very keen on going out.
dependent ON ... (but 'independent OF ...'):
* I don't want to be dependent on anybody.
crowded WITH (people etc.):
* The city centre was crowded with tourists. (but 'full of tourists')
famous FOR ...:
* The Italian city of Florence is famous for its art treasures.
responsible FOR ...:
* Who was responsible for all that noise last night?
130.1 Complete the second sentence so that it has the same meaning as the first one.
1. There were lots of tourists in the city centre. The city centre was crowded _with tourists._
2. There was a lot of furniture in the room. The room was full ---.
3. I don't like sport very much. I'm not very keen ---.
4. We haven't got enough time. We're a bit short ---.
5. I'm not a very good tennis player. I'm not very good ---.
6. Catherine's husband is Russian. Catherine is married ---.
7. I don't trust Robert. I'm suspicious ---.
8. My problem is not the same as yours. My problem is different ---.
130.2 Complete the sentences with one of the following adjectives + the correct preposition:
afraid different interested proud responsible similar sure
1. I think she's arriving this evening but I'm not _sure of_ that.
2. Your camera is --- mine but it isn't exactly the same.
3. Don't worry. I'll look after you. There's nothing to be ---.
4. 'Do you want to watch the news on television?' 'No, I'm not --- the news.'
5. The editor is the person who is --- what appears in a newspaper.
6. Mrs Davis is a very keen gardener. She's very --- her garden and loves showing it to visitors.
7. I was surprised when I met her for the first time. She was --- what I expected.
130.3 Put in the correct preposition.
1. The letter I wrote was full _of_ mistakes.
2. My home town is not especially interesting. It's not famous --- anything.
3. Kate is very fond --- her younger brother.
4. I don't like going up ladders. I'm afraid --- heights.
5. You look bored. You don't seem 'interested --- what I'm saying.
6. Did you know that Liz is engaged --- a friend of mine?
7. I'm not ashamed --- what I did. In fact I'm quite proud --- it.
8. I suggested we should all go out for a meal but nobody else was keen --- the idea.
9. These days everybody is aware --- the dangers of smoking.
10. The station platform was crowded --- people waiting for the train.
11. She's much more successful than I am. Sometimes I feel a bit jealous --- her.
12. I'm tired --- doing the same thing every day. I need a change.
13. Do you know anyone who might be interested --- buying an old car?
14. We've got plenty to eat. The fridge is full --- food.
15. She is a very honest person. I don't think she is capable --- telling a lie.
16. I'm not surprised she changed her mind at the last moment. That's typical --- her.
17. Our house is similar --- yours. Perhaps yours is a bit larger.
18. John has no money of his own. He's totally dependent --- his parents.
130.4 Write sentences about yourself. Are you good at these things or not? Use:
brilliant very good quite good not very good hopeless
1. (repairing things) _I'm not very good at repairing things._
2. (telling jokes) ---.
3. (mathematics) ---.
4. (remembering names) ---.
UNIT 131 Verb + preposition (1) at and to
A. Verb + at
look/have a look/stare/glance (etc.) AT ...:
* Why are you looking at me like that?
laugh/smile AT ...:
* I look stupid with this haircut. Everybody will laugh at me.
aim/point (something) AT..., shoot/fire (a gun) AT... (='in the direction of'):
* Don't point that knife at me. It's dangerous.
* We saw some people with guns shooting at birds.
B. Verb + to
talk/speak TO (somebody) ('with' is also possible but less usual):
* Who was that man you were talking to?
* Can I speak to Jane, please?
listen TO ...:
* We spent the evening listening to music. (not 'listening music')
write (a letter) TO ...:
* Sorry I haven't written to you for such a long time.
but phone/telephone somebody (no preposition):
* Did you phone your father yesterday? (not 'phone to your father')
invite (somebody) TO (a party/a wedding etc.):
* They only invited a few people to their wedding.
C. Some verbs can be followed by at or to, with a difference of meaning. For example:
shout AT somebody (when you are angry):
* She got very angry and started shouting at me.
shout TO somebody (so that they can bear you):
* She shouted to me from the other side of the street.
throw something AT somebody/something (in order to bit them):
* Somebody threw an egg at the minister.
throw something TO somebody (for somebody to catch):
* Judy shouted 'Catch!' and threw the keys to me from the window.
We say explain something (TO somebody):
* Can you explain this word to me? (not 'explain me this word')
also: 'explain (to somebody) that/what/how/why ...':
* I explained to them what I wanted them to do. (not 'I explained them')
Describe is similar:
* Let me describe to you what I saw.
Note that we say 'apologize TO somebody (for ...)':
* He apologized to me. (not 'He apologized me')
but 'thank somebody (for something)', 'ask somebody (for something)':
* He asked me for money. (not 'He asked to me')
131.1 Complete the sentences. Choose one of the following verbs (in the correct form) + the correct preposition:
explain invite laugh listen point glance speak throw throw write
1. I look stupid with this haircut. Everybody will _laugh at_ me.
2. I don't understand what this means. Can you _explain_ it _to_ me?
3. I --- my watch to see what the time was.
4. We've been --- the party but unfortunately we can't go.
5. Please --- me! I've got something important to tell you.
6. Don't --- stones --- the birds! It's cruel.
7. If you don't want to eat that sandwich, --- it --- the birds. They'll eat it.
8. Sally and Kevin had an argument and now they're not --- one another.
9. I --- Joanna last week but she hasn't replied to my letter yet.
10. Be careful with those scissors! Don't --- them --- me!
131.2 Put in to or at where necessary.
1. They only invited a few people _to_ their wedding.
2. Look --- these flowers. Aren't they pretty?
3. Please don't shout --- me! Be nice to me!
4. I saw Sue as I was cycling along the road. I shouted --- her but she didn't hear me.
5. Don't listen --- what he says. He doesn't know what he's talking about.
6. Can I speak --- you for a moment? There's something I want to ask you.
7. Do you think I could have a look --- your newspaper, please?
8. I'm a bit lonely. I need somebody to talk ---.
9. She was so angry she threw a chair --- me.
10. The woman sitting opposite me on the train kept staring --- me.
131.3 You ask somebody to explain some things that you don't understand. Write sentences using explain (something) to me or explain to me (how/what ... etc.).
1. (I don't understand this word.) _Can you explain this word to me?_
2. (I don't understand what you mean.) _Can you explain to me what you mean?_
3. (I don't understand this question.) Can you explain ---.
4. (I don't understand the system.) Can ---.
5. (I don't understand how this machine works.) ---.
6. (I don't understand what your problem is.) ---.
131.4 Put in to where necessary. If the sentence is already complete, leave an empty space (-)
1. I know who she is but I've never spoken _to_ her.
2. George won't be able to help you, so there's no point in asking (-) him.
3. I like to listen --- the radio while I'm having breakfast.
4. We'd better phone --- the restaurant to reserve a table.
5. I apologized --- Bridget for the misunderstanding.
6. Don't forget to write --- me while you're away.
7. I thanked --- everybody for all the help they had given me.
8. I explained --- everybody what they had to do.
9. Mike described --- me how the accident happened.
10. I'd like to ask --- you some questions.
UNIT 132 Verb + preposition (2) about/for/of/after
A. Verb + about
talk ABOUT .../read ABOUT .../tell somebody ABOUT .../have a discussion ABOUT...
* We talked about a lot of things at the meeting.
but 'discuss something' (no preposition):
* We discussed a lot of things at the meeting. (not 'discussed about')
also: 'do something ABOUT something' (= do something to improve a bad situation):
* If you're worried about the problem, you should do something about it.
B. Care about, care for and take care of
care ABOUT somebody/something (= think that somebody/something is important):
* He's very selfish. He doesn't care about other people.
We say 'care what/where/how' (etc.) (without 'about'):
* You can do what you like. I don't care what you do.
care FOR somebody/something:
i) = like something (usually in questions and negative sentences):
* Would you care for a cup of coffee? (= Would you like ...?)
* I don't care for very hot weather. (= I don't like ...)
ii) = look after somebody:
* Albert is 85 and lives alone. He needs somebody to care for him.
take care OF ... (= look after):
* Have a nice holiday. Take care of yourself! (= look after yourself)
C. Verb + for
ask (somebody) FOR...
* I wrote to the company asking them for more information about the job.
but * I asked her a question./They asked me the way to the station. (no preposition)
apply (TO a person, a company etc.) FOR (a job etc.):
* I think this job would suit you. Why don't you apply for it?
wait FOR .../wait FOR something to happen:
* Don't wait for me. I'll join you later.
* I'm not going out yet. I'm waiting for the rain to stop.
search (a person/a place/a bag etc.) FOR ...:
* I've searched (the house) for my keys but I still can't find them.
leave (a place) FOR (another place):
* I haven't seen her since she left (home) for work this morning. (not 'left to work')
D. Look for and look after
look FOR ... (= search for, try to find):
* I've lost my keys. Can you help me to look for them?
look AFTER ... (= take care of):
* Albert is 85 and lives alone. He needs somebody to look after him. (not 'look for')
* You can borrow this book if you promise to look after it.
132.1 Put in the correct preposition. If no preposition is needed, leave the space empty (-)
1. I'm not going out yet. I'm waiting _for_ the rain to Stop.
Date: 2015-02-03; view: 245