UNIT 112 Although/though/even though In spite of/despite
A. Study this example situation:
Last year Jack and Jill spent their holidays by the sea.
It rained a lot but they enjoyed themselves. You can say:
Although it rained a lot, they enjoyed themselves. (= It rained a lot but they ...)
or In spite of the rain, they enjoyed themselves. Despite the rain, they enjoyed themselves.
B. After although we use a subject + verb:
* Although it rained a lot, we enjoyed our holiday.
* I didn't get the job although I had all the necessary qualifications.
Compare the meaning of although and because:
* We went out although it was raining.
* We didn't go out because it was raining.
C. After in spite of or despite, we use a noun, a pronoun (this/that/what etc.) or ~ing:
* In spite of the rain, we enjoyed our holiday.
* I didn't get the job in spite of having all the necessary qualifications.
* She wasn't well, but in spite of this she went to work.
* In spite of what I said yesterday, I still love you.
Despite is the same as in spite of. Note that we say 'in spite of', but despite (without 'of'):
* She wasn't well, but despite this she went to work. (not 'despite of this')
You can say 'in spite of the fact (that)...' and 'despite the fact (that) ...':
* I didn't get the job in spite of the fact (that) I had all the necessary qualifications.
* I didn't get the job despite of the fact (that) I had all the necessary qualifications.
Compare in spite of and because of:
* We went out in spite of the rain. (or ... despite the rain.)
* We didn't go out because of the rain.
D. Compare although and in spite of/despite:
* Although the traffic was bad, I arrived on time. (not 'in spite of the traffic was bad')
In spite of the traffic, I arrived on time. (not 'in spite of the traffic was bad')
* I couldn't sleep although I was very tired. (not 'despite I was tired')
* I couldn't sleep despite being very tired. (not 'despite I was tired')
E. Sometimes we use though instead of although:
* I didn't get the job though I had all the necessary qualifications.
In spoken English we often use though at the end of a sentence:
* The house isn't very nice. I like the garden though. (= but I like the garden)
* I see him every day. I've never spoken to him though. (= but I've never spoken to him)
Even though (but not 'even' alone) is a stronger form of although:
* Even though I was really tired, I couldn't sleep. (not 'Even I was really tired ...')
112.1 Complete the sentences. Use although + a sentence from the box.
I didn't speak the language
he has a very important job
I had never seen her before
we don't like them very much
it was quite cold, the heating was on
I'd met her twice before
we've known each other for a long time]
1. _Although he has a very important job,_ he isn't articularly well-paid.
2. ---, I recognised her from a photograph.
3. She wasn't wearing a coat ---.
4. We thought we'd better invite them to the party ---.
5. ---, I managed to make myself understood.
6. ---, the room wasn't warm.
7. I didn't recognize her ---.
8. We're not very good friends ---.
112.2 Complete the sentences with although/in spite of/because/because of.
1. _Although_ it rained a lot, we enjoyed our holiday.
2. a. --- all our careful plans, a lot of things went wrong.
b. ---we had planned everything carefully, a lot of things went wrong.
3. a. I went home early --- I was feeling unwell.
b. I went to work the next day --- I was still feeling unwell.
4. a. She only accepted the job --- the salary, which was very high.
b. She accepted the job --- the salary, which was rather low.
5. a. I managed to get to sleep --- there was a lot of noise.
b. I couldn't get to sleep --- the noise.
Use your own ideas to complete the following sentences:
6. a. He passed the exam although .---.
b. He passed the exam because ---.
7. a. I didn't eat anything although ---.
b. I didn't eat anything in spite of ---.
112.3 Make one sentence from two. Use the word(s) in brackets in your sentences.
1. I couldn't sleep. I was tired. (despite). _I couldn't sleep despite being tired._
2. They have very little money. They are happy. (in spite of)
In spite of ---.
3. My foot was injured. I managed to walk to the nearest village. (although)
4. I enjoyed the film. The story was silly. (in spite of)
5. We live in the same street. We hardly ever see each other. (despite)
6. I got very wet in the rain. I had an umbrella. (even though)
112.4 Use the words in brackets to make a sentence with though at the end.
1. The house isn't very nice. (like/garden) _I like the garden though._
2. It's quite warm. (a bit windy) ---.
3. We didn't like the food. (ate) ---.
4. Liz is very nice. (don't like/husband) I ---.
UNIT 113 in case
A. Study this example situation:
Geoff is a football referee. He always wears two watches during a game because it is possible that one watch will stop.
He wears two watches in case one of them stops.
In case one of them stops ='because it is possible one of them will stop'.
Some more examples of in case:
* Ann might phone tonight. I don't want to go out in case she phones. (= because it is possible she will phone)
* I'll draw a map for you in case you can't find our house. (= because it is possible you won't be able to find it)
We use just in case for a smaller possibility:
* I don't think it will rain but I'll take an umbrella just in case. (=just in case it rains) Do not use will after in case. Use a present tense for the future (see also Unit 25):
* I don't want to go out tonight in case Ann phones. (not 'in case Ann will phone')
B. In case is not the same as if. We use in case to say why somebody does (or doesn't do) something. You do something now in case something happens later. Compare:
#1 in case
* We'll buy some more food in case Tom comes.
(= Perhaps Tom will come; we'll buy some more food now, whether he comes or not; then we'll already have the food if he comes.)
* I'll give you my phone number in case you need to contact me.
* You should insure your bicycle in case it is stolen.
* We'll buy some more food if Tom comes.
(= Perhaps Tom will come; if he comes, we'll buy some more food; if he doesn't come, we won't buy any more food.)
* You can phone me at the hotel if you need to contact me.
* You should inform the police if your bicycle is stolen.
C. You can use in case (+ past) to say why somebody did something:
* We bought some more food in case Tom came. (= because it was possible that Tom would come)
* I drew a map for Sarah in case she couldn't find the house.
* We rang the bell again in case they hadn't heard it the first time.
D. 'In case of.' is not the same as 'in case'. In case of... = 'if there is...' (especially in notices etc.):
* In case of fire, please leave the building as quickly as possible. (= if there is a fire)
* In case of emergency, telephone this number. (= if there is an emergency)
113.1 Barbara is going for a long walk in the country. She is going to take these things with her:
some chocolate a map an umbrella her camera some water a towel
She has decided to take these things because:
perhaps she'll want to have a swim
it's possible she'll get lost
she might get hungry
she might want to take some photographs
perhaps she'll get thirsty
perhaps it will rain
Write sentences with in case saying why Barbara has decided to take these things with her.
1. _She's going to take some chocolate in case she gets hungry._
2. She's going to take a map in case ---.
3. She's going to ---.
113.2 What do you say in these situations? Use in case.
1. It's possible that Mary will need to contact you, so you give her your phone number.
You say: Here's my phone number ---.
2. A friend of yours is going away for a long time. Maybe you won't see her again before she goes, so you decide to say goodbye now.
You say: I'll say ---.
3. You are shopping in a supermarket with a friend. You think you have everything you need but perhaps you've forgotten something. Your friend has the list. You ask him to check it.
You say: Can you ---.
113.3 Write sentences with in case.
1. There was a possibility that Ann would phone. So I didn't go out.
_I didn't go out in case Ann phoned._
2. John thought that he might forget the name of the book. So he wrote it down.
He wrote down ---.
3. 1 thought my parents might be worried about me. So I phoned them.
I phoned ---.
4. 1 wrote a letter to Jane but I didn't receive a reply. So I wrote to her again because I thought that perhaps she hadn't received my first letter.
5. I met some people when I was on holiday in France. They said they might come to London one day. I live in London, so I gave them my address.
113.4 Put in case or if.
1. Ann might phone this evening. I don't want to go out _in case_ she phones.
2. You should tell the police _if_ your bicycle is stolen.
3. 1 hope you'll come to London sometime. --- you come, you can stay with us,
4. This letter is for Susan. Can you give it to her -- you see her?
5. Write your name and address on your bag --- you lose it.
6. Go to the lost property office --- you lose your bag.
7. The burglar alarm will ring --- somebody tries to break into the house.
8. I've just painted the door. I'll put a WET PAINT notice next to it --- somebody doesn't realize it's just been painted.
9. I was advised to arrange insurance --- I needed medical treatment while I was abroad.
Date: 2015-02-03; view: 2133