UNIT 91 Relative clauses (1)--clauses with who/that/which
A. Look at this example sentence:
The woman _who lives next_(relative clause) door is a doctor.
A clause is a part of a sentence. A relative clause tells us which person or thing (or what kind of person or thing) the speaker means:
* The woman who lives next door ... ('who lives next door' tells us which woman)
* People who live in London ... ('who live in London' tells us what kind of people)
We use who in a relative clause when we are talking about people (not things). We use who instead of he/she/they:
the woman--she lives next door--is a doctor
-> The woman who lives next door is a doctor.
we know a lot of people--they live in London
-> We know a lot of people who live in London.
* An architect is someone who designs buildings.
* What was the name of the man who lent you the money?
* Anyone who wants to do the exam must enter before next Friday.
You can also use that (instead of who):
* The man that lives next door is very friendly.
But sometimes you must use who (not 'that') for people - see Unit 94.
B. When we are talking about things, we use that or which(not 'who') in a relative clause:
where is the cheese? - it was in the fridge
-> Where is the cheese that was in the fridge?
-> Where is the cheese which was in the fridge?
* I don't like stories that have unhappy endings. (or ... stories which have ...)
* Barbara works for a company that makes washing machines. (or ... a company which makes...)
* The machine that broke down has now been repaired. (or The machine which broke
That is more usual than which. But sometimes you must use which (not 'that')--see Unit 94.
C. You cannot use what in sentences like these:
*. Everything that happened was my fault. (not 'Everything what happened...')
What = 'the thing(s) that';
* What happened was my fault. (=the thing that happened)
D. Remember that in relative clauses we use who/that/which instead of he/she/they/it. So we say:
* Do you know the woman who lives next door? (not '...the woman she lives next door')
91.1 In this exercise you have to explain what some words mean. Choose the right meaning from the box and then write a sentence with who. Use a dictionary if necessary.
he/she steals from a shop
he/she designs buildings
he/she doesn't believe in God
he/she is not brave
he/she buys something from a shop
he/she pays rent to live in a house or flat
he/she breaks into a house to steal things
he/she no longer works and gets money from the state
1. (an architect) _Architect is someone who designs buildings._
2. (a burglar) _A burglar is someone ---.
3. (a customer) ---.
4. (a shoplifter) ---.
5. (a coward) ---.
6. (an atheist) ---.
7. (a pensioner) ---.
8. (a tenant) ---.
91.2 Make one sentence from two. Use who/that/which.
1. A girl was injured in the accident. She is now in hospital.
_The girl who was injured in the accident is now in. hospital._
2. A man answered the phone. He told me you were away.
The man ---.
3. A waitress served us. She was very impolite and impatient.
4. A building was destroyed in the fire. It has now been rebuilt.
5. Some people were arrested. They have now been released.
6. A bus goes to the airport. It runs every half hour.
91.3 Complete the sentences. Choose the most suitable ending from the box and make it into a relative clause.
he invented the telephone
she runs away from home
hey are never on time
they were on the wall
it makes washing machines
it gives you the meaning of words
it won the race
they stole my car
it can support life
it cannot be explained
1. Barbara works for a company _that makes washing machines._
2. The book is about a girl ---.
3. What was the name of the horse ---.
4. The police have caught the men ---.
5. Alexander Bell was the man ---.
6. What's happened to the pictures ---.
7. A mystery is something ---.
8. A dictionary is a book ---.
9. I don't like people ---.
10. It seems that Earth is the only planet ---.
Date: 2015-02-03; view: 702