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UNIT 70. Countable nouns with a/an and some

A. Countable nouns can be singular or plural:

a dog a child the evening this party an umbrella dogs some children the evenings these parties two umbrellas

B. Before singular countable nouns you can use a/an:

* Goodbye! Have a nice evening.

* Do you need an umbrella?

You cannot use singular countable nouns alone (without a/the/my etc.):

* She never wears a hat. (not 'She never wears hat')

* Be careful of the dog. (not 'Be careful of dog')

* What a beautiful day!

* I've got a headache.

C. We use a/an ... to say what kind of thing or person something/somebody is:

* A dog is an animal.

* I'm an optimist.

* Tim's father is a doctor.

* Are you a good driver?

* Jill is a really nice person.

* What a lovely dress!

We say that somebody has a long nose/a nice face/a strong heart etc.:

* Jack has got a long nose. (not 'the long nose')

In sentences like these, we use plural nouns alone (not with 'some'):

* Dogs are animals.

* Most of my friends are students.

* Jill's parents are really nice people.

* What awful shoes!

* Jack has got blue eyes. (not 'the blue eyes')

Remember to use a/an when you say what somebody's job is:

* Sandra is a nurse. (not 'Sandra is nurse')

* Would you like to be an English teacher?

D. You can use some with plural countable nouns. We use some in two ways:

i) Some = a number of/a few of/a pair of:

* I've seen some good films recently. (not 'I've seen good films')

* Some friends of mine are coming to stay at the weekend.

* I need some new sunglasses, (= a new pair of sunglasses)

Do not use some when you are talking about things in general (see also Unit 74):

* I love bananas. (not 'some bananas')

* My aunt is a writer. She writes books. (not 'some books')

Sometimes you can make sentences with or without some (with no difference in meaning):

* There are (some) eggs in the fridge if you're hungry.

ii) Some = some but not all

* Some children learn very quickly. (but not all children)

* Some police officers in Britain carry guns, but most of them don't.

EXERCISES

70.1 What are these things? Try and find out if you don't know.

1. an ant? _It's an insects._

2. ants? bees? _They're insects._

3. a cauliflower?

4. chess?

5. a violin? a trumpet? a flute?

6. a skyscraper?

7. Earth? Mars? Venus? Jupiter?

8. a tulip?

9. the Rhine? the Nile? the Mississippi?

10 a pigeon? an eagle? a crow?

Who were these people?

11. Beethoven? _Has was a composer._

12. Shakespeare?

13. Albert Einstein?

14. Washington? Lincoln? John Kennedy?

15. Marilyn Monroe?

16 Elvis Presley? John Lennon?

17. Van Gogh? Renoir? Gauguin?

70.2 Read about what these people do and say what their jobs are. Choose one of these jobs:

driving instructor interpreter journalist nurse pilot plumber travel agent waiter

1. Stella looks after patients in hospital. _She's a nurse._

2. George works in a restaurant. He brings the food to the tables. He ---

3. Mary arranges people's holidays for them. She ---



4. Ron works for an airline. He flies aeroplane. ---

5. Linda teaches people how to drive. ---

6. Dave fits and repairs water pipes. ---

7. Jenny writes articles for a newspaper. ---

8. John translates what people are saying from one language into another, so that they can understand each other. ---

70.3 Put in alan or some where necessary. If no word is necessary, leave the space empty(-).

1. I've seen some good films recently.

2. What's wrong with you? Have you got _a_ headache?

3. I know a lot of people. Most of them are - students.

4. When I was --- child, I used to be very shy.

5. Would you like to be --- actor?

6. Do you collect --- stamps?

7. What --- beautiful garden!

8. --- birds, for example the penguin, cannot fly.

9. I've been walking for three hours. I've got --- sore feet.

10. I don't feel very well this morning. I've got --- sore throat.

11. It's a pity we haven't got --- camera. I'd like to take --- photograph of that house.

12. Those are --- nice shoes. Where did you get them?

13. I'm going shopping. I want to buy --- new shoes.

14. You need --- visa to visit --- countries, but not all of them.

15. Jane is --- teacher. Her parents were --- teachers too.

16. Do you enjoy going to --- concerts?

17. When we got to the city centre --- shops were still open but most of them were closed.

18. I don't believe him. He's --- liar. He's always telling --- lies.

UNIT 71. A/an and the

A. Study this example:

JOHN: I had a sandwich and an apple for lunch. The sandwich wasn't very good but the apple was nice.

John says 'a sandwich', 'an apple' because this is the first time he talks about them.

John now says 'the sandwich', 'the apple because Karen knows which sandwich and which apple he means - the sandwich and the apple he had for lunch.

Compare a and the in these examples:

* A man and a woman were sitting opposite me. The man was American but I think the woman was British.

* When we were on holiday, we stayed at a hotel. Sometimes we had our evening meal at the hotel and sometimes we went to a restaurant.

B. We use the when we are thinking of one particular thing. Compare a/an and the:

* Tom sat down on a chair. (perhaps one of many chairs in the room)

but Tom sat down on the chair nearest the door. (a particular chair)

* Ann is looking for a job. (not a particular job)

but Did Ann get the job she applied for? (a particular job)

* Have you got a car? (not a particular car)

but I cleaned the car yesterday. (= my car)

For a see also Units 70 and 72A.

C. We use the when it is clear in the situation which thing or person we mean. For example, in a room we talk about 'the light/the floor/the ceiling/the door/the carpet' etc.:

* Can you turn off the light, please? (= the light in this room)

* I took a taxi to the station. (= the station in that town)

* I'd like to speak to the manager, please. (= the manager of this shop etc.)

In the same way, we say (go to) the bank, the post office:

* I must go to the bank to get some money and then I'm going to the post office to get some stamps. (The speaker is usually thinking of a particular bank or post office.

Also: the doctor, the dentist:

* Carol isn't very well. She's gone to the doctor. (= her usual doctor)

* I hate going to the dentist.

Compare a:

* Is there a bank near here?

* My sister is a dentist.

Don't forget the:

* Susan works in the city centre. (not 'in city centre')

* My brother is in the army. (not 'in army')

D. We say 'once a week/three times a day/-'1.20 a kilo' etc.:

* 'How often do you go to the cinema?' 'About once a month.'

* 'How much are those potatoes?' 'Ll.20 a kilo.'

* She works eight hours a day, six days a week.

EXERCISES

71.1 Put in a/an or the.

1. This morning I bought _a_ newspaper and --- magazine ---newspaper is in my bag but I don't know where I put --- magazine.

2. I saw --- accident this morning --- car crashed into --- tree. --- driver of --- car wasn't hurt but --- car was badly damaged.

3. There are two cars parked outside: --- blue one and --- grey one. --- blue one belongs to my neighbours; I don't know who --- owner of --- grey one is.

4. My friends live in --- old house in --- small village. There is --- beautiful garden behind --- house. I would like to have ---garden like that.

71.2 Put in a/an or the.

1. a. This house is very nice. Has it got --- garden?

b. It's a beautiful day. Let's sit in --- garden.

c. I like living in this house but it's a pity that --- garden is so small.

2. a. Can you recommend --- good restaurant?

b. We had dinner in --- very nice restaurant.

c. We had dinner in --- most expensive restaurant in town.

3. a. She has --- French name but in fact she's English, not French.

b. What's --- name of that man we met yesterday?

c. We stayed at a very nice hotel - I can't remember --- name now.

4. a. There isn't --- airport near where I live --- nearest airport is 70 miles away.

b. Our plane was delayed. We had to wait at --- airport for three hours.

c. Excuse me, please. Can you tell me how to get to --- airport?

5. a. 'Are you going away next week?' 'No, --- week after next.'

b. I'm going away for --- week in September.

c. George has a part-time job. He works three mornings --- week.

71.3 Put in a/an or the in these sentences where necessary.

1. Would you like apple? _an apple._

2. How often do you go to dentist? ---

3. Could you close door, please? ---

4. I'm sorry. I didn't mean to do that. It was mistake ---

5. Excuse me, where is bus station, please? ---

6. I've got problem. Can you help me? ---

7. I'm just going to post office. I won't be long ---

8. There were no chairs, so we had to sit on floor. ---

9. Have you finished with book I lent you? ---

10. My sister has just got job in bank in Manchester. ---

11. We live in small flat near city centre. ---

12. There's small supermarket at end of street I live in ---

71.4 Answer these questions about yourself. Where possible, use the structure in Section D (once a week/three times a day etc.).

1. How often do you go to the cinema? _Three or four times a year._

2. How much does it cost to hire a car in your country? _About L30 a day._

3. How often do you go away on holiday? ---

4. What's the speed limit in towns in your country? ---

5. How much sleep do you need? ---

6. How often do you go out in the evening? ---

7. How much television do you watch (on average)? ---

UNIT 72. The (1)

A. We use the ... when there is only one of something:

* What is the longest river in the world? (there is only one longest river)

* The earth goes round the sun and the moon goes round the earth.

* I'm going away at the end of this month.

Don't forget the:

* Paris is the capital of France. (not 'Paris is capital of...')

But we use a/an to say what kind of thing something is (see Unit 70C). Compare the and a:

* The sun is a star. (= one of many stars)

* The hotel we stayed at was a very nice hotel.

B. We say: the sky the sea the ground the country the environment:

* We looked up at all the stars in the sky. (not 'in sky')

* Would you rather live in a town or in the country?

* We must do more to protect the environment. (= the natural world around us)

Note that we say space (without 'the') when we mean 'space in the universe':

* There are millions of stars in space. (not 'in the space')

but * I tried to park my car but the space was too small.

C. We use the before same (the same):

* Your pullover is the same colour as mine. (not 'is same colour')

* These two photographs are the same. (not 'are same')

D. We say: (go to) the cinema, the theatre:

* I often go to the cinema but I haven't been to the theatre for ages.

When we say the cinema/the theatre, we do not necessarily mean one particular cinema or theatre.

We usually say the radio, but television (without 'the'):

* I often listen to the radio.

* We heard the news on the radio.

* I often watch television.

* We watched the news on television.

but * Can you turn off the television, please? (= the television set)

Compare a:

* There isn't a theatre in this town.

* I'm going to buy a new radio/television (set).

E. Breakfast lunch dinner

We do not normally use the with the names of meals (breakfast, lunch etc.):

* What did you have for breakfast?

* We had lunch in a very nice restaurant.

* What time is dinner?

But we use a if there is an adjective before breakfast, lunch etc.:

We had a very nice lunch. (not 'we had very nice lunch')

F. Platform 5 Room 126 etc.

We do not use 'the' before noun + number. For example, we say:

* Our train leaves from Platform 5. (not 'the Platform 5')

* (in a shop) Have you got these shoes in size 43? (not 'the size 43')

In the same way, we say: Room 126 (in a hotel) page 29 (of a book) Section A etc.

EXERCISES

72.1 Put in the or a/an where necessary. If no word is necessary, leave the space empty(-).

1. A: Where did you have - lunch?

B: We went to _a_ restaurant.

2. A: Did you have --- nice holiday?

B: Yes, 'it was --- best holiday I've ever had.

3. A: Where's nearest shop?

B: There's one at --- end of this street.

4. A: Do you often listen to radio?

B: No. In fact I haven't got radio.

5. A: Would you like to travel in --- space?

B: Yes, I'd love to go to -- moon.

6. A: Do you go to -- cinema very often?

B: No, not very often. But I watch a lot of films on --- television.

7. A: It was --- nice day yesterday, wasn't it?

B: Yes, it was beautiful. We went for a walk by --- sea.

8. A: What did you have --- breakfast this morning?

B: Nothing. I never eat --- breakfast.

9. A: Can you tell me where --- Room 25 is, please?

B: It's on --- second floor.

10. A: We spent all our money because we stayed at --- most expensive hotel in town.

B: Why didn't you stay at --- cheaper hotel?

72.2 Put in the where necessary. If you don't need the, leave the space empty(-).

1. I haven't been to _the_ cinema for ages.

2. I lay down on --- ground and looked up at --- sky.

3. Sheila spends most of her free time watching --- television.

4. --- television was on but nobody was watching it.

5. Have you had --- dinner yet?

6. Mary and I arrived at --- same time.

7. You'll find --- information you need at --- top of --- page 15.

8. Peru is a country in South America. --- capital is Lima.

72.3 Put in the or a/an where necessary. If the sentence is already correct, put 'RIGHT'. (If necessary, see Unit 71 for a/an and the.)

1. I Sun is star. _The sun is a star._

2. Tim lives in small village in country. ---

3. Moon goes round earth every 27 days. ---

4. What is highest mountain in world? ---

5. I'm fed up with doing same thing every day. ---

6. It was very hot day. It was hottest day of year. ---

7. I don't usually have lunch but I always eat good breakfast. ---

8. If you live in foreign country, you should try and learn language. ---

9. We missed our train because we were waiting on wrong platform. We were on Platform 3 instead of Platform 8. -

72.4 Complete the sentences using one of the following. Use the if necessary.

breakfast cinema dinner gate Gate 21 Question 8 sea

1. I didn't have time for --- this morning because I was in a hurry.

2. 'I'm going to --- this evening.' 'Are you? What film are you going to see?'

3. There was no wind, so --- was very calm.

4. 'Are you going out this evening?' 'Yes, after ---

5. The examination paper wasn't too difficult but I couldn't answer ---

6. Oh --- is open. I must have forgotten to shut it.

7. (airport announcement) 'Flight BA123 to Vienna is now boarding at ---

UNIT 73. The (2) (School/the school)

A. Compare school and the school:

#1 Alison is ten years old. Every day she goes to school. She's at school now. School begins at 9 and finishes at 3.

We say a child goes to school or is at school (as a pupil). We are not necessarily thinking of a particular school. We are thinking of school as a general idea.

#2 Today Alison's mother wants to speak to her daughter's teacher. So she has gone to the school to see her. She's at the school now.

Alison's mother is not a pupil. She is not 'at school', she doesn't 'go to school'. But if she wants to see Alison's teacher, she goes to the school (= Alison's school, a particular school).

B. We use prison, hospital, university, and church in a similar way. We do not use the when we are thinking of the general idea of these places and what they are used for. Compare:

#1 * Ken's brother is in prison for robbery. (He is a prisoner. We are not thinking of a particular prison.)

* Jack had an accident last week. He was taken to hospital. He's still in hospital now. (as a patient)

* When I leave school, I want to go to university.

* Mrs Kelly goes to church every Sunday. (to a religious service)

#2 * Ken went to the prison to visit his brother. (He went as a visitor, not as a prisoner.)

* Jill has gone to the hospital to visit Jack.

* She's at the hospital now. (as a visitor)

* Excuse me, where is the university, please? (= the university buildings)

* The workmen went to the church to repair the roof. (not for a religious service)

With most other places, you need the. For example, the cinema, the bank, the station. See Units 71C and 72D.

C. Bed work home

We say: 'go to bed/be in bed' etc. (not 'the bed'):

* It's time to go to bed now.

* This morning I had breakfast in bed.

but * I sat down on the bed. (a particular piece of furniture)

'go to work/be at work/start work/finish work' etc. (not 'the work'):

* Ann didn't go to work yesterday.

* What time do you usually finish work?

'go home/come home/arrive home/be at home' etc.:

* It's late. Let's go home.

* Will you be at home tomorrow afternoon?

D. We say 'go to sea/be at sea' (without 'the') when the meaning is 'go/be on a voyage':

* Keith is a seaman. He spends most of his life at sea.

but * I'd like to live near the sea.

* It can be dangerous to swim in the sea.

EXERCISES

73.1 Complete the sentences using a preposition (to/at/in etc.) + one of the following words:

bed home hospital prison school university work

You can use the words more than once.

1. Two people were injured in the accident and were taken _to hospital._

2. In Britain, children from the age of five have to go ---.

3. Mark didn't go out last night. He stayed ---.

4. I'll have to hurry. I don't want to be late ---.

5. There is a lot of traffic in the morning when everybody is going ---.

6. Cathy's mother has just had an operation. She is still ---.

7. When Julia leaves school, she wants to study economics ---.

8. Bill never gets up before 9 o'clock. It's 8.30 now, so he is still ---.

9. If you commit a serious crime, you could be sent ---.

73.2 Complete the sentences with the word given (school etc.). Use the where necessary.

1. (school)

a. Every term parents are invited to the school to meet the teacher.

b. Why aren't your children at school today? Are they ill?

c. When he was younger, Ted hated ---

d. What time does --- start in the mornings in your country?

e. A: How do your children get home from ---? By bus?

B: No, they walk --- isn't very far.

f. What sort of job does jenny want to do when she leaves ---?

g. There were some people waiting outside --- to meet their children.

2. (university)

a. In your country, do many people go to ---?

b. If you want to get a degree, you normally have to study at ---.

c. This is only a small town but --- is the biggest in the country.

3. (hospital)

a. Nora works as a cleaner at ---.

b. When Ann was ill, we all went to --- to visit her.

c. My brother has always been very healthy. He's never been in ---.

d. Peter was injured in an accident and was kept in --- for a few days.

4. (church)

a. John's mother is a regular churchgoer. She goes to --- every Sunday.

b. John himself doesn't go to ---.

c. John went to --- to take some photographs of the building.

5. (prison)

a. In many places people are in --- because of their political opinions.

b. The other day the fire brigade were called to --- to put out a fire.

c. The judge decided to fine the man -c500 instead of sending him to ---.

6. (home/work/bed)

a. I like to read in --- before I go to sleep?

b. It's nice to travel around but there's no place like ---!

c. Shall we meet after --- tomorrow evening?

d. If I'm feeling tired, I go to --- early.

e. What time do you usually start --- in the morning?

f. The economic situation is very bad. Many people are out of ---

7. (sea)

a. There's a nice view from the window. You can see ---.

b. It was a long voyage. We were at --- for four weeks.

c. I love swimming in ---.

UNIT 74. The (3) (Children/the children)

A. When we are talking about things or people in general, we do not use 'the':

* I'm afraid of dogs. (not 'the dogs') (dogs = dogs in general, not a particular group of dogs)

* Doctors are paid more than teachers.

* Do you collect stamps?

* Crime is a problem in most big cities. (not 'the crime')

* Life has changed a lot in the last 30 years. (not 'the life')

* Do you often listen to classical music? (not 'the classical music')

* Do you like Chinese food/French cheese/Swiss chocolate?

* My favourite sport is football/skiing/athletics. (not 'the football the skiing' etc.)

* My favourite subject at school was history/physics/English. We say 'most people/most books/most cars' etc. (not 'the most ...'--see also Unit 87A).

* Most people like George. (not 'the most people')

B. We use the when we mean particular things or people. Compare:

#1 In general (without 'the')

* Children learn a lot from playing. (= children in general)

* I often listen to music.

* All cars have wheels.

* Sugar isn't very good for you.

* Do English people work hard? (= English people in general)

#2 Particular people or things (with the)

* We took the children to the zoo. (= a particular group, perhaps the speaker's own children)

* The film wasn't very good but I liked the music. (= the music in the film)

* All the cars in this car park belong to people who work here.

* Can you pass the sugar, please? (= the sugar on the table)

* Do the English people you know work hard? (= only the English people you know, not English people in general)

C. The difference between 'something in general' and 'something in particular' is not always very clear. Compare these sentences:

#1 In general (without 'the')

* I like working with people. (= people in general)

* I like working with people who are lively. (not all people, but 'people who are lively' is still a general idea)

* Do you like coffee? (= coffee in general)

* Do you like strong black coffee? (not all coffee, but 'strong black coffee' is still a general idea)

#2 Particular people or things (with the)

* I like the people I work with. (= a particular group of people)

* Did you like the coffee we had after our meal last night? (= particular coffee)

EXERCISES

74.1 In this exercise you have to write whether you like or dislike these things:

boxing cats fast food restaurants football hot weather mathematics opera small children rock music zoos

Choose FOUR of these things and begin your sentences with one of these:

I like .../ I don't like... I don't mind... I love .../ I hate... I'm interested in .../ I'm not interested in ...

1. _I don't like hot weather very much._

2. ---

3. ---

4. ---

5. ---

74.2 Complete the sentences using one of the following. Use the where necessary.

(the) basketball (the) questions (the) history (the) hotels (the) meat (the) lies (the) information (the) patience (the) people (the) water (the) grass (the) spiders

1. My favourite sport is basketball.

2. The information we were given wasn't correct.

3. Many people are afraid of ---.

4. A vegetarian is somebody who doesn't eat ---.

5. The test wasn't very difficult. I answered all --- without difficulty.

6. Do you know --- who live next door?

7. --- is the study of the past.

8. George always tells the truth. He never tells ---.

9. We couldn't find anywhere to stay in the town. All --- were full.

10. --- in the pool didn't look very clean, so we didn't go for a swim.

11. Don't sit on ---. It's wet after the rain.

12. You need --- to teach young children.

74.3 Choose the correct form, with or without the.

1. I'm afraid of _dogs/the dogs._ ('dogs' is correct)

2. Can you pass _salt/the salt_, please? ('the salt' is correct)

3. _Apples/The apples_ are good for you.

4. Look at _apples/the apples_ on that tree! They're very big.

5. _Women/The women_ live longer than men/the men.

6. I don't drink _tea/the tea._ I don't like it'

7. We had a very nice meal. _Vegetables/The vegetables_ were especially good.

8. _Life/The life_ is strange sometimes. Some very strange things happen.

9. I like _skiing/the skiing_ but I'm not very good at it.

10. Who are _people/the people_ in this photograph?

11. What makes _people/the people_ violent? What causes aggression/the aggression?

12. _All books/All the books_ on the top shelf belong to me.

13. Don't stay in that hotel. It's very noisy and _beds/the beds_ are very uncomfortable.

14. A pacifist is somebody who is against _war/the war._

15. _First World War/The First World War_ lasted from 1914 until 1918.

16. One of our biggest social problems is _unemployment/the unemployment._

17. Ron and Brenda got married but _marriage/the marriage_ didn't last very long.

18. _Most people/The most people_ believe that _marriage/the marriage_ and _family life/the family life_ are the basis of _society/the society._

UNIT 75. The (4) (The giraffe/the telephone/the piano etc.; the + adjective)

A. Study these sentences:

* The giraffe is the tallest of all animals.

* The bicycle is an excellent means of transport.

* When was the telephone invented?

* The dollar is the currency (= money) of the United States.

In these examples, the... does not mean one particular thing. The giraffe one particular type I animal, not one particular giraffe. We use the (+ a singular countable noun) in this way to talk about a type of animal, machine etc.

In the same way we use the for musical instruments:

* Can you play the guitar?

* The piano is my favourite instrument.

Compare a:

* I'd like to have a guitar.

* We saw a giraffe at the zoo.

Note that we use man (= human beings in general/the human race) without 'the':

* What do you know about the origins of man? (not 'the man')

B. The + adjective

We use the + adjective (without a noun) to talk about groups of people, especially:

the young the old the elderly the rich the poor the unemployed the homeless the sick the disabled the injured the dead

The young = young people, the rich = rich people etc.:

* Do you think the rich should pay more taxes to help the poor?

* The homeless need more help from the government.

These expressions are always plural in meaning. You cannot say 'a young' or 'an unemployed'. You must say 'a young man', 'an unemployed woman' etc. Note also that we say 'the poor' (not 'the poors'), 'the young' (not 'the youngs') etc.

C. The + nationality

You can use the with some nationality adjectives to mean 'the people of that country'. For example:

* The French are famous for their food. (= the people of France)

* Why do the English think they are so wonderful? (= the people of England) In the same way you can say:

the Spanish the Dutch the British the Irish the Welsh

Note that the French/the English etc. are plural in meaning. You cannot say 'a French/an English'. You have to say 'a Frenchman/an Englishwoman' etc.

You can also use the + nationality words ending in -ese (the Chinese/the Sudanese etc.):

* The Chinese invented printing.

These words can also be singular (a Japanese, a Sudanese).

Also: the Swiss/a Swiss (plural or singular)

With other nationalities, the plural noun ends in -s. For example:

an Italian a Mexican a Scot a Turk (the) Italians (the) Mexicans (the) Scots (the) Turks

EXERCISES

75.1 Answer the questions. Choose the right answer from the box. Don't forget the. Use a dictionary if necessary.

1. animals: tiger elephant rabbit cheetah giraffe kangaroo

2. birds: eagle penguin swan owl parrot robin

3. inventions: telephone wheel telescope laser helicopter typewriter

4. currencies: dollar lira escudo rupee peseta yen

1. a. Which of the animals is tallest? _the giraffe._

b. Which animal can run fastest?

c. Which of these animals is found in Australia?

2. a. Which of these birds has a long neck?

b. Which of these birds cannot fly?

c. Which bird flies at night?

3. a. Which of these inventions is oldest?

b. Which one is most recent?

c. Which one is especially important for astronomy?

4 a. What is the currency of India?

b. What is the currency of Portugal?

c. What is the currency of your country?

75.2 Put in the or a where necessary. If the sentence is already complete leave an empty space(-)

1. When was _the_ telephone invented?

2. Can you play ---music instrument?

3. Jill plays --- violin in an orchestra.

4. There was --- piano in the corner of the room.

5. Can you play --- piano?

6. Our society is based on --- family.

7. Martin comes from --- large family.

8. When was --- paper first made?

9. --- computer has changed the way we live.

75.3 Complete these sentences using the + one of these adjectives:

injured poor rich sick unemployed young

1. _The young_ have the future in their hands.

2. Ambulances arrived at the scene of the accident and took --- to hospital.

3. Life is all right if you have a job, but things are not so easy for ---.

4. Julia has been a nurse all her life. She has spent her life caring for ---.

5. In England there is an old story about a man called Robin Hood. It is said that he robbed --- and gave the money to ---.

75.4 What do you call the people of these countries?

1. Canada?

one person (a/an ...): a Canadian

the people in general: the Canadian

2. Germany?

one person (a/an ...):

the people in general:

3. France?

one person (a/an ...):

the people in general:

4. Russia?

one person (a/an ...):

the people in general:

5. China?

one person (a/an ...):

the people in general:

6. Brazil?

one person (a/an ...):

the people in general:

7. England?

one person (a/an ...):

the people in general:

8. and your country?

one person (a/an ...):

the people in general:

UNIT 76. Names with and without the (1)

A. We do not use 'the' with names of people ('Ann', 'Ann Taylor' etc.). In the same way, we do not normally use 'the' with names of places. For example:

continents: Africa (not 'the Africa'), Europe, South America

countries: France (not 'the France'), Japan, Switzerland

states, regions etc.: Texas, Cornwall, Tuscany, Central Europe

islands: Corsica, Sicily, Bermuda

cities, towns etc.: Cairo, New York, Madrid

mountains: Everest, Etna, Kilimanjaro

But we use the in names with 'Republic', 'Kingdom', 'States' etc.:

the United States of America (the USA)

the United Kingdom (the UK)

the Dominican Republic

Compare:

* We visited Canada and the United States.

B. When we use Mr/Mrs/Captain/Doctor etc. + a name, we do not use 'the'. So we say:

Mr Johnson/Doctor Johnson/Captain Johnson/President Johnson etc. (not 'the...')

Uncle Robert/Aunt Jane/Saint Catherine/Princess Anne etc. (not 'the...')

Compare:

* We called the doctor. but We called Doctor Johnson. (not 'the Doctor Johnson')

We use mount (= mountain) and lake in the same way (without 'the'):

Mount Everest (not 'the...') Mount Etna Lake Superior Lake Constance

* They live near the lake. but They live near Lake Constance. (without 'the')

C. We use the with the names of oceans, seas, rivers and canals (see also Unit 77B):

the Atlantic (Ocean)

the Mediterranean (Sea)

the Red Sea

the Indian Ocean

the Channel (between France and Britain)

the Suez Canal

the (River) Amazon

the (River) Thames

the Nile

the Rhine

D. We use the with plural names of people and places:

people: the Taylors (= the Taylor family), the Johnsons

countries: the Netherlands, the Philippines, the United States

groups of islands: the Canaries/the Canary Islands, the Bahamas, the British Isles

mountain ranges: the Rocky Mountains/the Rockies, the Andes, the Alps

* The highest mountain in the Alps is Mont Blanc. (not 'the Mont Blanc')

E. North/northern etc.

We say: the north (of France) but northern France (without 'the')

the south-east (of Spain) but south-eastern Spain

Compare:

* Sweden is in northern Europe; Spain is in the south.

Also: the Middle East the Far East

You can also use north/south etc. + a place name (without 'the'):

North America West Africa South-East Spain

Note that on maps, the is not usually included in the name.

EXERCISES

76.1 Put in the where necessary. Leave a space (-) if the sentence is already complete.

1. Who is - Doctor Johnson? (The sentence is complete without the.)

2. I was ill, so I went to see --- doctor.

3. --- President is the most powerful person in --- United States.

4. --- President Kennedy was assassinated in 1963.

5. Do you know --- Wilsons? They're a very nice couple.

6. Do you know --- Professor Brown's phone number?

76.2 Some of these sentences are correct, but some need the (perhaps more than once). Correct the sentences where necessary. Put 'RIGHT' if the sentence is already correct.

1. Everest was first climbed in 1953. _RIGHT_

2. Milan is in north of Italy. _the north of Italy._

3. Africa is much larger than Europe.

4. Last year I visited Mexico and United States.

5. South of England is warmer than north.

6. Portugal is in western Europe.

7. France and Britain are separated by Channel.

8. Jim has travelled a lot in Middle East.

9. Chicago is on Lake Michigan.

10. The highest mountain in Africa is Kilimanjaro (5,895 meters).

11. Next year we are going skiing in Swiss Alps.

12. United Kingdom consists of Great Britain and Northern Ireland.

13. Seychelles are a group of islands in Indian Ocean.

14. River Volga flows into Caspian Sea.

76.3 Here are some geography questions. Choose the right answer from one of the boxes and write the if necessary. You do not need all the names in the boxes. Use an atlas if necessary.

continents: Africa, Asia, Australia, Europe, North, America, South, America

countries: Canada, Denmark, Indonesia, Sweden, Thailand, United States

oceans and seas: Atlantic, Indian Ocean, Pacific, Black Sea, Mediterranean, Red Sea

mountains: Alps, Andes, Himalayas, Rockies, Urals

rivers and canals: Amazon, Rhine, Danube, Thames, Nile, Volga, Suez Canal, Panama Canal

1. What do you have to cross to travel from Europe to America? _The Atlantic_

2. Where is Argentina?

3. Which is the longest river in Africa?

4. Of which country is Stockholm the capital?

5. Of which country is Washington the capital?

6. What is the name of the mountain range in the west of North America?

7. What is the name of the sea between Africa and Europe?

8. Which is the smallest continent in the world?

9. What is the name of the ocean between America and Asia?

10. What is the name of the ocean between Africa and Australia?

11. Which river flows through London?

12. Which river flows through Vienna, Budapest and Belgrade?

13. Of which country is Bangkok the capital?

14. What joins the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans?

15. Which is the longest river in South America?

UNIT 77. Names with and without the (2)

A. Names without 'the'

We do not use 'the' with names of most streets/roads/squares/parks etc.:

Union Street (not 'the ...') Fifth Avenue Piccadilly Circus Hyde Park Blackrock Road Broadway Times Square Waterloo Bridge

Many names (especially names of important buildings and institutions) are two words:

Kennedy Airport Cambridge University

The first word is usually the name of a person ('Kennedy') or a place ('Cambridge'). We do not usually use 'the' with names like these. Some more examples:

Victoria Station (not 'the ...') Edinburgh Castle London Zoo Westminster Abbey Buckingham Palace Canterbury Cathedral

But we say 'the White House', 'the Royal Palace', because 'white' and 'royal' are not names like 'Kennedy' and 'Cambridge'. This is only a general rule and there are exceptions.

B. Most other names (of places, buildings etc.) have names with the:

adjective or the + name etc. + noun

the Hilton Hotel

the National Theatre

the Sahara Desert

the Atlantic Ocean

These places usually have names with the:

hotels/restaurants/pubs: the Station Hotel, the Bombay Restaurant, the Red Lion (pub)

theatres/cinemas: the Palace Theatre, the Odeon Cinema

museums/galleries: the British Museum, the Tate Gallery

other buildings: the Empire State Building, the Festival Hall, the White House

oceans/seas/canals: the Indian Ocean, the Mediterranean Sea, the Suez Canal

also:

newspapers: the Washington Post, the Financial Times

organizations (but see also Section D): the European Union, the BBC (= the British Broadcasting Corporation)

Sometimes we leave out the noun: the Hilton (Hotel), the Sahara (Desert)

Sometimes the name is only the + noun: the Vatican (in Rome), the Sun (British newspaper)

Names with ... of ... usually have the. For example:

the Bank of England

the Tower of London

the Museum of Modern Art

the Houses of Parliament

the Great Wall of China

the Tropic of Capricorn

the Gulf of Mexico

the University of London (but the London University)

C. Many shops, restaurants, hotels, banks etc. are named after the people who started them. These names end in -'s or -s. We do not use 'the' with these names:

Lloyds Bank (not the Lloyds Bank) McDonalds Jack's Guest House Harrods (shop)

Churches are often named after saints:

St John's Church (not the St John's Church)

St Paul's Cathedral

D. Names of companies, airlines etc. are usually without 'the':

Fiat (not the Fiat) Sony Kodak British Airways IBM

EXERCISES

77.1 Use the map to answer the questions in the way shown. Write the name of the place and the street it is in. On maps we do not normally use the. In your sentences, use the if necessary.

1. Is there a cine a near here? Yes, the Odeon in Baines Street.

2. Is there a supermarket near here? Yes, --- in ---.

3. Is there a hotel near here? Yes, --- in ---.

4. Is there a church near here? Yes, ---.

5. Is there a nub near here? Yes. ---.

6. Is there a museum near here? Yes, ---.

7. Is there a bank near here? Yes, ---.

8. Is there a Park near here? Yes, --- at the end of ---.

9. Is there a restaurant near here? Yes,---.

77.2 Where are these streets and buildings? Choose from the box to complete the sentences. Use the where necessary.

Acropolis Vatican Broadway White House Buckingham Palace St Mark's Cathedral Eiffel Tower Trafalgar Square

1. _Trafalgar_ Square is in London.

2. --- is in Paris.

3. --- is in Rome.

4. --- is in London.

5. --- is in New York.

6. --- is in Washington.

7. --- is in Athens.

8.--- is in Athens. is in Venice.

77.3 Choose the correct form, with or without the.

1. Have you ever been to _British Museum/the British Museum._ (the ... is correct)

2. _Hyde Park/The Hyde Park_ is a very large park in central London.

3. Another park in central London is _St James's Park/the St James's Park._

4. _Grand Hotel/The Grand Hotel_ is in _Baker Street/the Baker Street._

5. We flew to New York from _Gatwick Airport/the Gatwick Airport_ near London.

6. Frank is a student at _Liverpool University/the Liverpool University._

7. If you're looking for a good clothes shop, I would recommend _Harrison's/the Harrison's._

8. If you're looking for a good pub, I would recommend _Ship Inn/the Ship Inn._

9. _Statue of Liberty/The Statue of Liberty_ is at the entrance to _New York harbour/the New York harbour._

10. You should go to _Science Museum/the Science Museum._ It's very interesting,

11. John works for IBM/the IBM now. He used to work for _British Telecom/the British Telecom._

12. 'Which cinema are you going to this evening?' '_Classic/The Classic._'

13. I'd like to go to China and see _Great Wall/the Great Wall._

14. Which newspaper shall I buy--_Independent/the Independent_ or _Herald/the Herald_?

15. This book is published by _Cambridge University Press/the Cambridge University Press._

UNIT 78. Singular and plural

A. Sometimes we use a plural noun for one thing that has two parts. For example:

trousers (two legs) also jeans/tights/shorts/pants

pyjamas (top and bottom)

glasses (or spectacles)

binoculars

scissors

These words are plural, so they take a plural verb:

* My trousers are too long. (not 'is too long')

You can also use a pair of + these words:

* Those are nice jeans. or That's a nice pair of jeans. (not 'a nice jeans')

* I need some new glasses. or I need a new pair of glasses.

B. Some nouns end in -ics but are not usually plural. For example: athletics gymnastics mathematics (or maths) physics electronics economics politics

* Gymnastics is my favourite sport.

News is not plural (see Unit 69C):

* What time is the news on television? (not 'are the news')

Some words ending in -s can be singular or plural. For example:

means a means of transport many means of transport

series a television series two television series

species a species of bird 200 species of bird

C. Some singular nouns are often used with a plural verb. For example:

government staff team family audience committee company firm

These nouns are all groups of people. We often think of them as a number of people (= 'they'), not as one thing (= 'it'). So we often use a plural verb:

* The government (= they) want to increase taxes.

* The staff at the school (= they) are not happy with their new working conditions.

In the same way, we often use a plural verb after the name of a sports team or a company:

* Scotland are playing France next week (in a football match).

* Shell have increased the price of petrol.

A singular verb (The government wants.../Shell has... etc.) is also possible.

We always use a plural verb with police:

* The police have arrested a friend of mine. (not 'The police has')

* Do you think the police are well-paid?

Note that a person in the police is 'a policeman/a policewoman/a police officer' (not 'a police').

D. We do not often use the plural of person ('persons'). We normally use people (a plural word):

* He's a nice person. but They are nice people.

* Many people don't have enough to eat. (not 'doesn't have')

E. We think of a sum of money, a period of time, a distance etc. as one thing. So we use a singular verb:

* Twenty thousand pounds (= it) was stolen in the robbery. (not 'were stolen')

* Three years (= it) is a long time to be without a job. (not 'Three years are ...')

* Six miles is a long way to walk every day.

EXERCISES

78.1 Complete the sentences using a word from Sections A or B. Sometimes you need a or some.

1. My eyes aren't very good. I need _glasses._

2. This plant is _a_ very rare _species._

3. Footballers don't wear trousers when they play. They wear ---.

4. The bicycle is --- of transport.

5. The bicycle and the car are --- of transport.

6. I want to cut this piece of material. I need ---.

7. Ann is going to write --- of articles for her local newspaper.

8. There are a lot of American TV --- shown on British television.

9. While we were out walking, we saw 25 different --- of bird.

78.2 In each example the words on the left are connected with an activity (for example, a sport or an academic subject). Write the name of the activity. Each time the beginning of the word is given.

1. calculate algebra equation: mathematics.

2. government election minister: p---

3. finance trade industry: e---

4. running lumping throwing: a---

5. light heat gravity: ph---

6. exercises somersault parallel bars: gy---

7. computer silicon chip video games: el---

78.3 Choose the correct form of the verb, singular or plural. In one sentence either the singular or plural verb is possible.

1. Gymnastics _is/are_ my favourite sport. ('is' is correct)

2. The trousers you bought for me _doesn't/don't_ fit me.

3. The police _want/wants_ to interview two men about the robbery last week.

4. Physics _was/were_ my best subject at school.

5. Can I borrow your scissors? Mine _isn't/aren't_ sharp enough.

6. Fortunately the news _wasn't/weren't_ as bad as we expected.

7. Where _does/do_ your family live?

8. Three days _isn't/aren't_ long enough for a good holiday.

9. I can't find my binoculars. Do you know where _it is/they are?_

10. Do you think the people _is/are_ happy with the government?

11. _Does/Do_ the police know how the accident happened?

12. I don't like very hot weather. Thirty degrees _is/are_ too warm for me.

78.4 Most of these sentences are wrong. Correct them where necessary; Put 'RIGHT' if the sentence is already correct.

1. The government want to increase taxes. _RIGHT (wants' is also correct)_

2. Susan was wearing a black jeans.

3. Brazil are playing Italy in a football match next Wednesday.

4. I like Martin and Jill. They're very nice persons.

5. I need more money than that. Ten pounds are not enough.

6. I'm going to buy a new pyjama.

7. The committee haven't made a decision yet.

8. Many people has given up smoking.

9. There was a police standing at the corner of the street.

10. Has the police arrived yet?

11. This scissors is not very sharp.

UNIT 79. Noun + noun (a tennis ball/a headache etc.)

A. We often use two nouns together (noun + noun) to mean one thing/person/idea etc. For example:

a tennis ball a bank manager a road accident income tax the city centre

The first noun is like an adjective--it tells us what kind of thing/person/idea etc. For example:

a tennis ball = a ball used to play tennis

a road accident = an accident that happens on the road

income tax = tax that you pay on your income

the sea temperature = the temperature of the sea

a London doctor = a doctor from London

So you can say:

a television camera a television programme a television studio a television producer

(all different things or people to do with television)

language problems marriage problems health problems work problems

(all different kinds of problems)

Compare:

garden vegetables (= vegetables that are grown in a garden)

a vegetable garden (= a garden where vegetables are grown)

Often the first word ends in ~ing. Usually these are things used for doing something. For example:

a washing machine a frying pan a swimming pool the dining room

Sometimes there are more than two nouns together:

* I waited at the hotel reception desk. (= a desk)

* We watched the World Swimming Championships on television.

* If you want to play table tennis (= a game), you need a table tennis table (= a table).

B. When nouns are together like this, sometimes we write them as one word and sometimes as two separate words. For example:

a headache toothpaste a weekend a stomach ache table tennis

There are no clear rules for this. If you are not sure, it is usually better to write two words.

You can often put a hyphen (-) between the two words (but this is not usually necessary): a dining-room the city-centre

C. Note the difference between:

a wine glass (perhaps empty) and a glass of wine (= a glass with wine in it)

a shopping bag (perhaps empty) and a bag of shopping (= a bag full of shopping)

D. When we use noun + noun, the first noun is like an adjective. It is normally singular but the meaning is often plural. For example, a bookshop is a shop where you can buy books, an apple tree is a tree that has apples.

In the same way we say:

a three-hour journey (not 'a three-hours journey')

a ten-pound note (not 'pounds') two 14-year-old girls (not 'years')

a four-week English course (not 'weeks') a three-page letter (not 'pages')

So we say:

* It was a three-hour journey. but The journey took three hours.

For the structure 'I've got three weeks' holiday', see Unit 80E.

EXERCISES

79.1 What do we call these things and people? Use the structure noun + noun.

1. A ticket for a concert is _a concert ticket!_

2. A magazine about computers is ---.

3. Photographs taken on your holiday are your ---.

4. Chocolate made with milk is ---.

5. Somebody whose job is to inspect factories is ---.

6. A hotel in central London is ---.

7. The results of your examinations are your ---.

8. The carpet in the dining room is ---.

9. A scandal involving a football club is ---.

10. A question that has two parts is ---.

11. A girl who is seven years old is ---.

79.2 Write the correct word for each picture. Each word has two parts and these are given above the pictures. In la for example, you must decide whether the word is boathouse or houseboat.

boat/house

horse/race

card/phone

79.3 Answer the questions using two of the following words each time:

accident belt card credit editor forecast number road room seat shop weather window

1. This can be caused by bad driving. _A road accident_

2. If you're staying at a hotel, you need to remember this. Your ---

3. You should wear this when you're in a car. A ---

4. You can sometimes use this to pay for things instead of cash. A ---

5. If you want to know if it's going to rain, you can read or listen to this. The ---

6. This person is a top journalist. A ---

7. You might stop to look in this when you're walking along a street. A ---

79.4 Complete the sentences using one of the following:

15 minute(s) 60 minute(s) two hour(s) five day(s) two year(s) 500 year(s) six mile(s) 20 pound(s) five course(s) ten page(s) 450 page(s)

Sometimes you need the singular (day/page etc.) and sometimes the plural(days/pages etc.)

1. It's quite a long book. There are _450 pages._

2. A few days ago I received a _ten-page_ letter from Julia.

3. I didn't have any change. I only had a --- note.

4. At work in the morning I usually have a --- break for coffee.

5. There are --- in an hour.

6. It's only a --- flight from London to Madrid.

7. It was a big meal. There were ---

8. Mary has just started a new job. She's got a --- contract.

9. The oldest building in the city is the --- old castle.

10. I work --- a week. Saturday and Sunday are free.

11. We went for a --- walk in the country.

UNIT 80. -s (the girl's name) and of... (the name of the book)

A. We normally use -'s for people or animals (the girl's.../the horse's... etc.):

the girl's name the horse's tail Mr Evans's daughter a woman's hat the manager's office Sarah's eyes

* Where is the manager's office? (not 'the office of the manager')

* What colour are Sarah's eyes? (not 'the eyes of Sarah')

Note that you can use -'s without a following noun:

* This isn't my book. It's my brother's. (= my brother's book)

We do not always use -'s for people. For example, we would use of... in this sentence:

* What is the name of the man who lent us the money? ('the man who lent us the money' is too long to be followed by -'s)

Note that we say a woman's hat (= a hat for a woman), a boy's name (= a name for a boy), a bird's egg (= an egg laid by a bird) etc.

B. For things, ideas etc. we normally use of ( ... of the book/... of the restaurant etc.):

the door of the garage (not 'the garage's door')

the name of the book

the owner of the restaurant

Sometimes you can use the structure noun + noun (see Unit 79):

the garage door the restaurant owner

We normally use of (not noun + noun ) with the beginning/end/top/bottom/front/back middle/side etc. So we say:

the back of the car (not 'the car back')

the beginning of the month

C. You can usually use -'s or of... for an organization (= a group of people). So you can say:

the government's decision or the decision of the government

the company's success or the success of the company

It is also possible to use -'s for places. So you can say:

the city's new theatre the world's population Italy's largest city

D. After a singular noun we use -'s:

my sister's room (= her room--one sister)

Mr Carter's house

After a plural noun (sisters,, friends etc.) we put ' (an apostrophe) after the s (s'):

my sisters' room (= their room--two or more sisters)

the Carters' house (Mr and Mrs Carter)

If a plural noun does not end in -s (for example, men/women/children/people) we use -s:

the men's changing room a children's book (= a book for children)

Note that you can use -'s after more than one noun:

Jack and Jill's wedding Mr and Mrs Carter's house

E. You can also use -'s with time expressions (yesterday/next week etc.)

* Have you still got yesterday's newspaper?

* Next week's meeting has been cancelled.

In the same way, you can say today's .../tomorrow's .../this evening's ... Monday's ... etc.

We also use -'s (or -s' with plural words) with periods of time:

* I've got a week's holiday starting on Monday.

* Jill has got three weeks' holiday.

* I live near the station - it's only about ten minutes' walk.

Compare this structure with 'a three-hour journey', 'a ten-minute walk' etc. (see Unit 79D).

EXERCISES

80.1 Join the two (or three) nouns. Sometimes you have to use -'s or -s'; and sometimes you have to use ... of ...

1. the owner/that car _the owner of that car_

2. the mother/Ann _Ann's mother_

3. the jacket/that man ---

4. the top/the page ---

5. the daughter/Charles ---

6. the cause/the problem ---

7. the newspaper/yesterday ---

8. the birthday/my father ---

9. the name/this street ---

10. the toys/the children ---

11. the new manager/the company ---

12. the result/the football match ---

13. the garden/our neighbours ---

14. the ground floor/the building ---

15. the children/Don and Mary ---

16. the economic policy/the government ---

17. the husband/Catherine ---

18. the husband/the woman-talking to Mary ---

19. the car/the parents/Mike ---

20. the wedding/the friend I Helen ---

80.2 What is another way of saying these things? Use -'s.

1. a hat for a woman _a woman's hat_

2. a name for a boy ---

3. clothes for children ---

4. a school for girls ---

5. a nest for a bird ---

6. a magazine for women ---

80.3 Read each sentence and write a new sentence beginning with the underline words.

1. The meeting _tomorrow_ has been cancelled.

_Tomorrow's meeting has been cancelled._

2. The storm _last week_ caused a lot of damage.

Last ---

3. The only cinema in _the town_ has closed down.

The ---

4. Exports from _Britain_ to the United States have fallen recently.

5. Tourism is the main industry in _the region._

80.4 Use the information given to complete the sentences.

1. If I leave my house at 9 o'clock and drive to London, I arrive at about 12.

So it's about _three hours' drive_ to London from my house. (drive)

2. If I leave my house at 8.S5 and walk-to the station, I get there at 9 o'clock.

So it's only --- from my house to the station. (walk)

3. I'm going on holiday on the 12th. I have to be back at work on the 26th.

So I've got --- (holiday)

4. I went to sleep at 3 o'clock this morning and woke up an hour later. After that I couldn't sleep. So last night I only had --- (sleep)


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