UNIT 32. Must mustn't needn't
A. Must mustn't needn't
'You must do something' = it is necessary that you do it:
* Don't tell anybody what I said. You must keep it a secret.
* We haven't got much time. We must hurry.
'You mustn't do something' = it is necessary that you do not do it (so don't do it):
* You must keep it a secret. You mustn't tell anybody else. (= don't tell anybody else)
* It's essential that nobody hears us. We mustn't make any noise.
'You needn't do something' = it is not necessary that you do it, you don't need to do it:
* You can come with me if you like but you needn't come if you don't want to. (= it is not necessary for you to come)
* We've got plenty of time. We needn't hurry. (= it is not necessary to hurry)
B. Instead of needn't, you can use don't/doesn't need to. So you can say:
* We needn't hurry. or We don't need to hurry.
Remember that we say 'don't need to do', but 'needn't do' (without to).
Needn't and don't need to are similar to don't have to (see Unit 31C):
* We've got plenty of time. We don't have to hurry.
C. Needn't have (done)
Study this example situation:
I think it's going to rain. I'll take the umbrella.
I needn't have brought the umbrella.
George had to go out. He thought it was going to rain, so he decided to take the umbrella.
But it didn't rain, so the umbrella was not necessary. So:
He needn't have taken the umbrella.
'He needn't have taken the umbrella' = He took the umbrella but this was not necessary. Of course, he didn't know this when he went out.
Compare needn't (do) and needn't have (done):
* That shirt isn't dirty. You needn't wash it.
* Why did you wash that shirt? It wasn't dirty. You needn't have washed it.
D. Didn't need to (do) and needn't have (done)
I didn't need to ... = it was not necessary for me to... (and I knew this at the time):
* I didn't need to get up early, so I didn't.
* I didn't need to get up early, but it was a lovely morning, so I did.
'I needn't have (done) something' = I did something but now I know that it was not necessary:
* I got up very early because I had to get ready to go away. But in fact it didn't take me long to get ready. So, I needn't have got up so early. I could have stayed in bed longer.
32.1 Complete the sentences using needn't + one of these verbs:
ask come explain leave tell walk
1. We've got plenty of time. We _needn't leave_ yet.
2. I can manage the shopping alone. You --- with me.
3. We --- all the way home. We can get a taxi.
4. just help yourself if you'd like something to eat. You --- first.
5. We can keep this a secret between ourselves. We --- anybody else.
6. I understand the situation perfectly. You --- further.
32.2 Complete the sentences with must, mustn't or needn't.
1. We haven't got much time. We _must_ hurry.
2. We've got plenty of time. We _needn't_ hurry.
3. We have enough food at home so we --- go shopping today.
4. Jim gave me a letter to post. I --- remember to post it.
5. Jim gave me a letter to post. I --- forget to post it.
6. There's plenty of time for you to make up your mind. You --- decide now.
7. You --- wash those tomatoes. They've already been washed.
8. This is a valuable book. You --- look after it carefully and you ---lose it.
9. 'What sort of house do you want to buy? Something big?' 'Well, it --- be big--that's not important. But it --- have a nice garden--that's essential.'
32.3 Read the situations and make sentences with needn't have.
1. George went out. He took an umbrella because he thought it was going to rain. But it didn't rain. He needn't have taken an umbrella.
2. Ann bought some eggs when she went shopping. When she got home, she found that she already had plenty of eggs. She ---.
3. A friend got angry with you and shouted at you. You think this was unnecessary. Later you say to him/her: You ---.
4. Brian had no money, so he sold his car. A few days later he won some money in a lottery. He ---.
5. When we went on holiday, we took the camera with us but we didn't use it in the end. ---.
6. I thought I was going to miss my train so I rushed to the station. But the train was late and in the end I had to wait 20 minutes. ---.
32.4 Write two sentences for each situation. Use needn't have in the first sentence and could have in the second (as in the example). For could have see Unit 27.
1. Why did you rush? Why didn't you take your time?
_You needn't have rushed. You could have taken your time._
2. Why did you walk home? Why didn't you take a taxi?
3. Why did you stay at a hotel? Why didn't you stay with us?
4. Why did she phone me in the middle of the night? Why didn't she phone me in the morning?
5. Why did you leave without saying anything? Why didn't you say goodbye to me?
UNIT 33. Should (1)
A. You should do something = it Is a good thing to do or the right thing to do. You can use should to give advice or to give an opinion:
* You look tired. You should go to bed.
* The government should do more to help homeless people.
* 'Should we invite Susan to the party?' 'Yes, I think we should.'
We often use should with I think/I don't think/Do you think...?:
* I think the government should do more to help homeless people.
* I don't think you should work so hard.
* 'Do you think I should apply for this job?' 'Yes, I think you should.'
'You shouldn't do something' = it isn't a good thing to do:
* You shouldn't believe everything you read in the newspapers.
Should is not as strong as must:
* You should apologise. (= it would be a good thing to do)
* You must apologise. (= you have no alternative)
B. We also use should when something is not right or what we expect. For example:
* I wonder where Liz is. She should be here by now. (= she isn't here yet, and this is not normal)
* The price on this packet is wrong. It should be L1.20, not L1.50.
* Those boys shouldn't be playing football at this time. They should be at school.
We use should to say that we expect something to happen:
* She's been studying hard for the exam, so she should pass. (= I expect her to pass)
* There are plenty of hotels in the town. It shouldn't be difficult to find somewhere to stay. (= I don't expect that it will be difficult)
C. 'You should have done something' = you didn't do it but it would have been the right thing to do:
* It was a great party last night. You should have come. Why didn't you? (= you didn't come but it would have been good to come)
* I'm feeling sick. I shouldn't have eaten so much chocolate. (= I ate too much chocolate)
* I wonder why they're so late. They should have been here an hour ago.
* She shouldn't have been listening to our conversation. It was private.
Compare should (do) and should have (done):
* You look tired. You should go to bed now.
* You went to bed very late last night. You should have gone to bed earlier.
D. Ought to ...
You can use ought to instead of should in the sentences on this page. Note that we say 'ought to do...' (with to):
* Do you think I ought to apply for this job? (= Do you think I should apply ...?)
* Jack ought not to go to bed so late. (= Jack shouldn't go ...)
* It was a great party last night. You ought to have come.
* She's been studying hard for the exam, so she ought to pass.
33.1 For each situation write a sentence with should or shouldn't + one of the following.
go away for a few days go to bed so late look for another job put some pictures on the walls take a photograph use her car so much
1. (Liz needs a change.) _She should go away for a few days._
2. (My salary is very low.) You ---.
3. (Jack always has difficulty getting up.) He ---.
4. (What a beautiful view!) You---.
5. (Sue drives everywhere. She never walks.) She ---.
6. (Bill's room isn't very interesting.) ---.
33.2 Read the situations and write sentences with I think/I don't think ... should...
1. Peter and Judy are planning to get married. You think it's a bad idea. (get married) _I don't think they should get married._
2. You don't like smoking, especially in restaurants. (be banned) I think ---.
3. I have a very bad cold but I plan to go out this evening. You don't think this is a good idea. You say to me: (go out) ---.
4. You are fed up with the government. You think they have made too many mistakes. (resign) ---.
33.3 Complete the sentences with should (have) + the verb in brackets.
1. Margaret should pass the exam. She's been studying very hard. (pass)
2. You missed a great party last night. You should have come. (come)
3. We don't see you enough. You --- and see us more often. (come)
4. I'm in a difficult position. What do you think I ---? (do)
5. I'm sorry that I didn't take your advice. I --- what you said. (do)
6. I'm playing tennis with Jill tomorrow. She --- she's much better than me. (win)
7. We lost the match but we ---. We were the better team. (win)
8. 'Is John here yet?' 'Not yet, but he --- here soon.' (be)
9. I posted the letter three days ago, so it --- by now. (arrive)
33.4 Read the situations and write sentences with should/shouldn't. Some of the sentences are past and some are present.
1. I'm feeling sick. I ate too much. _I shouldn't have eaten so much._
2. That man on the motorbike isn't wearing a helmet. That's dangerous.
He _should be wearing a helmet._
3. When we got to the restaurant, there were no free tables. We hadn't reserved one. We ---.
4. The notice says that the shop is open every day from 8.30. It is 9 o'clock now but the shop isn't open yet. ---.
5. The speed limit is 30 miles an hour, but Catherine is doing 50.
6. I went to Paris. A friend of mine lives in Paris but I didn't go to see him while I was there.
When I saw him later, he said: You ---.
7. I was driving behind another car. Suddenly, the driver in front stopped without warning and I drove into the back of his car. It wasn't my fault ---.
8. I walked into a wall. I wasn't looking where I was going.
UNIT 34. Should (2)
A. You can use should after a number of verbs, especially:
suggest propose recommend insist demand
* They insisted that we should have dinner with them.
* I demanded that he should apologise.
* What do you suggest I should do?
In the same way, you can use should after suggestion/proposal/recommendation etc.
* What do you think of Jane's suggestion that I should buy a car?
and also after 'it's important/vital/necessary/essential that ...'
* It's essential that you should be here on time.
B. You can also leave out should in all the sentences in Section A:
* It's essential that you be here on time. (= that you should be here)
* I demanded that he apologise.
* What do you suggest I do?
This form (you be/he apologise etc.) is sometimes called the subjunctive.
You can also use normal present and past tenses:
* It's essential that you are here on time.
* I demanded that he apologised.
Be careful with suggest. You cannot use to ... ('to do/to buy' etc.) after suggest:
* What do you suggest we should do?
or What do you suggest we do? (but not 'What do you suggest us to do?')
* Jane suggested that I (should) buy a car.
or Jane suggested that I bought a car. (but not 'Jane suggested me to buy')
For suggest ~ing, see Unit 52.
C. You can use should after a number of adjectives, especially:
strange odd funny typical natural interesting surprised surprising
* It's strange that he should be late. He's usually on time.
* I was surprised that she should say such a thing.
D. If ... should...
You can say 'If something should happen...'. For example:
* If Tom should phone while I'm out, tell him I'll phone him back later.
'If Tom should phone' is similar to 'If Tom phones'. With should, the speaker feels that the possibility is smaller. Another example:
* I've left the washing outside. If it should rain, can you bring it in?
You can also put should at the beginning of these sentences (Should something happen ...):
* Should Tom phone, can you tell him I'll phone him back later?
E. You can use I should .../I shouldn't ... to give somebody advice. For example:
* 'Shall I leave now?' 'No, I should wait a bit longer.'
Here, 'I should wait'= 'I would wait if I were you, I advise you to wait'. Two more examples:
* It's very cold this morning. I should wear a coat when you go out.
* I shouldn't stay up too late. You'll be tired tomorrow.
34.1 Write a sentence (beginning in the way shown) that means the same as the first sentence.
1. 'I think it would be a good idea to see a specialist,' the doctor said to me.
The doctor recommended that I should see a specialist.
2. 'You really must stay a little longer,' she said to me.
She insisted that ---.
3. 'Why don't you visit the museum after lunch?' I said to them.
I suggested that ---.
4. 'You must pay the rent by Friday,' the landlord said to us.
The landlord demanded that ---.
5. 'Why don't you go away for a few days?'Jack said to me.
Jack suggested that ---.
34.2 Are these sentences right or wrong?
1. a Tom suggested that I should look for another job. RIGHT
b Tom suggested that I look for another job. ---
c Tom suggested that I looked for another job. ---
d Tom suggested me to look for another job. ---.
2. a Where do you suggest I go for my holiday? ---
b Where do you suggest me to go for my holiday? ---
c Where do you suggest I should go for my holiday? ---
34.3 Complete the sentences using should + one of these verbs:
ask be leave listen say worry
1. It's strange that she _should be_ late. She's usually on time.
2. It's funny that you --- that. I was going to say the same thing.
3. It's only natural that parents --- about their children.
4. Isn't it typical of Ron that he --- without saying goodbye to anybody?
5. I was surprised that he --- me for advice. What advice could I give him?
6. It's very important that everybody --- very carefully.
34.4 Complete these sentences using if ... should... .
1. (It's possible that you'll see Tom this evening.)
_If you should see Tom this evening_, can you ask him to phone me?
2. (It's possible that Ann will arrive before I get home.)
If ---, can you look after her until I come?
3. (Perhaps there will be some letters for me while I'm away.)
---, can you send them on to this address?
4. (I don't suppose you'll need help but you might.)
---, let me know.
Write sentences 3 and 4 again, this time beginning with should.
5. (3) ---, can you send them on to this address?
6. (4) ---.
34.5 (Section E) Complete the sentences using I should + one of these verbs:
buy keep phone wait
1. 'Shall I leave now?' 'No, _I should wait_ a bit longer.'
2. 'Shall I throw these things away?' 'No --- them. You may need them.'
3. 'Shall I go and see Paul?' 'Yes, but --- him first.'
4. 'Do you think it's worth repairing this TV set?' 'No --- a new one.'
Date: 2015-02-03; view: 1082