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Will and shall



We use will to say what we know or think about the future. Will here has a neutral meaning. It does not express the idea that we have already decided to do something or that we are planning something.

B Will for instant decisions

We also use will for an instant decision, when we decide on something or agree to do it more or less at the moment of speaking.

I'm thirsty. I think I'll make some tea.

not l make some-tea.

You've left your computer on. ~ Oh, I'll go and switch it off.

We must celebrate. I know, we'll have a party.

I don't think I'll do any work tonight. I'm too tired. We also use it to order things.

I'll have the ham salad, please.

We also use will in offers and invitations (see Unit 51).
Offer: I'll peel the potatoes. ~ Oh, thank you.

Invitation: Will you come to lunch? ~ Yes, thank you. I'd

love to. Promise: I'll pay you back next week.


C The form of will

The form is will or '11.

The west will have rain tomorrow. You'll be late if you don't hurry. Will you be at home this evening? The world will end in the year 2050. The negative is will not or won't.

The cost will not be more than £50. I won't have time for a meal.

D Shall

We can use shall for the future, but only in the first person, after I or we.

/ will be/I shall be on holiday in August.

We will know/We shall know the results soon. But not Everyone shall know the results-seen.

I will and I shall have the same meaning here, but shall is a little formal. Both I will and I shall can be shortened to I'll, which is pronounced /ail/.

I'll be on holiday in August. (= I will OR I shall)

Shall has other meanings. We can use it in offers and suggestions (see Unit 51).
Offer: Shall I pack up your shopping for you? ~ Oh, thank you.

Suggestion: Shall we all go out together? ~ Good idea. We do not use shall in American English (see page 377).

25 Will and be going to 28 Will be doing 29 A Will have done 144 Will in conditionals


23 Exercises

1 Will for the future and for instant decisions (A-B)

Read the conversations. Which replies are statements about the future and which are instant decisions?

► What would you like? ~ I'll have an orange juice, please. decision

1 Shall we go out tonight? ~ I'll be too tired, I think.

2 We've lost a tennis ball. ~ I'll help you look for it.

3 I'm worried about the exam. ~ Oh, you'll be all right.

4 I haven't got any transport. ~ Oh, we'll give you a lift.

5 I must fix this shelf some time. ~ We'll be dead before then.

2 Instant decisions (B)

Say what your decision is in these situations, or what you offer to do. Use these verbs: answer, carry, have, post, shut

► You and your friend have come into the room. The window is open, and it is cold.
/'// shut the window.

1 The phone is ringing. You are the nearest person to it.

2 The choice on the menu is fish or chicken. You hate fish.

3 You are meeting a friend at the station. He has two suitcases. There's a bag, too.



4 Your friend has written a letter. You are going to walk into town past the post office.

3 Will and won't for the future (C)

Use the notes to write about what will happen next weekend.
► it / be / warm / tomorrow It will be warm tomorrow.

1 Tom / watch / the match

2 Harriet's party / be / fun

3 Trevor / not put up / the shelves

4 Laura / be / annoyed

5 Andrew / study / all weekend

6 Rachel / not do / any work

4 Will and shall (A, D)

Complete the conversation. Put in will or shall.

Rachel: What (►) shall we do today?

Vicky: It would be nice to go out somewhere. The forecast says temperatures

(1) ....................................... rise to thirty degrees.

Jessica: (2) ............................................ we go for a walk?

Rachel: That sounds a bit boring. What about the seaside? We could get a bus.

Jessica: How much (3) ..................................... it cost? I haven't got very much money.

Vicky: It isn't far. It doesn't cost much.

Jessica: Everywhere (4)........................................ be so crowded today because it's a holiday. The journey

(5) .......................................... take ages.

Rachel: Come on, Vicky. (6) we leave Jessica behind if she's going to be so

miserable?



Date: 2014-12-22; view: 190


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